By M. Dan. Drexel University.
Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory has successfully produced extraction of quinine sulphate from the bark of cinchona tree purchase super avana no prescription. To be able to use it safely and effectively for the treatment of malaria discount super avana 160mg with mastercard, the local quinine sulphate product needs to be confirmed by phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test order super avana with a visa. That was conducted as a controlled parallel, experimental study on mice model comparing with quinine sulphate from Indonesia, Holland and Germany. Basic identification and impurity testing of all different types of quinine sulphates powder were tested. Characterization by ultra-violet spectrophotometer and infrared spectrophotometer revealed the same spectrum with no major impurity peak. Mie Mie Nwe; Zaw Myint; Theingi Thwin; Thet Thet Mar; Aye Myint Oo; Lwin Zar Maw; Tin Ko Ko Oo; May Thu Kyaw; Yee Yee Sein. The aim of the study is to identify and differentiate between two varieties of trees which are commonly known as Banda trees grown in Yangon Division. The morphological, phytochemical, and elemental studies of leaves, fruits and barks were done. The leaves are obovate to oblong, round or tapering at base and have yellowish spot-like glands on the lamina and base of midrib in variety 1 and red glands in variety 2. The mesocarp (flashy part) of fruits are either pink or yellow in colour, pink are bitter and yellow are sweet. In the elemental analysis, potassium, calcium and silicon were found in leaves, fruits and barks; iron, calcium and iodine were found in oil. Due to the different phytochemical and elemental contants of these two varieties of Terminalia catappa Linn. Phytochemical analysis of Myanmar Green tea: implications to antioxidant properties and health benefits. Khin Tar Yar Myint; Thaw Zin; Khin Chit; Win Win Maw; Thandar Myint; Khin Myat Tun. Many people around the world drink Green-tea for its reputed health benefits, which are believed to be attributed to the presence of polyphenols. Polyphenols contained in tea are classified as catechins, which are chemicals with potent antioxidant properties and thus, act as scavengers of free radicals. This antioxidant property of Green-tea is dependent on the gentle steaming method which prevents oxidation and thus preserving the polyphenols in its original form. The fermentation and oxidation process used for other kinds of tea destroys the polyphenols with loss of health benefits. The objective of the study is to conduct the phytochemical analysis of Myanmar Green-tea so as to evaluate the contents which can contribute to its health benefits and further compare it with plain tea, which was also extensively consumed by the Myanmar people. Myanmar Green-tea (Nara organic Green tea, Kachin special group) and Plain tea (Htoo super plain tea), commercially available in the market, were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis of its constituents including alkaloids such as caffeine, total phenols, catechin containing polyphenols, and tannins. The results showed that Myanmar Green-tea has a higher percentage of polyphenols than plain tea, thus supporting the preservation of anti-oxidant properties and its health benefits. Persence of alkaloids including caffeine and related compounds is responsible for the stimulant effect of both Plain tea and Green-tea. Presence of tannins indicated the yellowish color and the refreshing aroma which is unique to the pleasing effect valued by many people. The study supported the importance of the processing methods in making tea if the beneficial effects are to be preserved. The collected tubers were dried, powdered and stored in air tight bottles for further use. The preliminary phytochemical tests and determination of extractive values were determinated by using the powdered tubers. The presence of alkaloids and tannins were mostly dominant in the phytochemical investigation of the powdered tubers. So colchicines, gloriosine and tannins were extracted and isolated by selective solubility method. The isolated compounds were identified by column and thin layer chromatography using benzene, ethyl acetate methanol (2:2:1v/v). The plant extract was prepared from powdered tubers by using polar and non polar solvents. Toxicological investigation of the aqueous extract was performed by using animal model (Pharmacology Research Division, Department of Medical Research). The phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant effects of different extracts of Thea sinensis Linn. Antioxidants may play a major role in the prevention of diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, some forms of cancer and effective to be long life and anti-aging. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of different extracts of Thea sinensis Linn. May Aye Than; Khin Tar Yar Myint; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Win Win Maw; Ohnmar Kyaw; Mar Mar Myint; San San Myint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical constituents, acute toxicity, metal content and antioxidant activity of beetroot which is recently introduced in Myanmar as there is no scientific information available. It contained alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds, glycosides, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, steroid/terpenoids, amino acids in the root and flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, reducing sugar, carbohydrate, steroid/terpenoids and amino acids in leaves. Betacyanin and betaxanthins were isolated as major compounds from fresh juice of beetroot by Harborne methods. Heavy metal contents were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectrometer. Morphological and histological characters were investigated so as to ascertain their correct identification. The dried powder has been examined and presented its diagnostic characters as a standard for medicinal purposes. In morphological study, the plant was perennial twiner with slender flexible and tough branches, stem scarcely woody and seed is bright scarlet with a black spot at the hilum. In histological study, styloid (rod shap) crystals were present in the upper surface and anomocytic stomata were present in the lower surface of the lamina. The cortical region of the young stem consisted of angular collenchymatous cells toward the outside and chlorenchymatous cells toward the inside. Pith region of the mature stem was characterized by pitted lignified parenchymatous cells. Phelloderm of the root was composed of parenchymatous cells and groups of sclereids. In the surface view of fruit, anomocytic stoma, unicellular and glandular trichomes were present. In transverse section, the epicarp and endocarp were composed of tightly packed sclereids.
Several kiwis in a with altered keratin structure in the spongy layer New Zealand zoo developed a scaly dermatitis over that prevents normal light scattering purchase cheap super avana line. The bird was on an all-seed diet frequently brittle and may break at the site of abnormal coloration order super avana with a mastercard. Changing the diet discount super avana uk, increasing the exercise (out- door flight enclosure) and standard treatment for grade 4 bumble- ment that was routinely included in their diet was foot were effective in resolving the lesions. The clinical problem resolved when the mul- tivitamin supplement was again added to the diet. Over-supplementation may cause problems with excess vitamin, mineral, fat or protein Tibial dyschondroplasia is characterized by uncalci- consumption. A genetic predisposition along with electro- Demineralized, bent bones and pathologic fractures lyte imbalances involving sodium, potassium and may occur in birds with hypovitaminosis D and cal- chloride are thought to be involved in the develop- cium, phosphorus or magnesium deficiencies or im- ment of tibial dyschondroplasia. Leg paralysis has been associated with calcium, chloride or riboflavin deficiency. Slipped tendon of the hock (perosis) may occur with manganese, biotin, pantothenic acid or folic acid de- Cervical paralysis has been associated with a folic ficiencies (see Color 8). Jerky leg movements have been asso- allowed sufficient exercise and birds fed high-min- ciated with pyridoxine deficiency. There is gross enlargement of the tibiometatarsal joint, twist- Sudden collapse or fainting has been associated with ing and bending of the distal tibia and slipping of the hypoglycemia in raptors or in other species when a gastrocnemius muscle from its condyles. Syncope is naceous birds, cranes and ratites are particularly characteristic of advanced hypocalcemia in African susceptible to this condition. In some cases, surgical correction is possible (see Behavioral changes including aggressiveness (bit- Chapter 46). In spite of the absence of complete data for companion birds, anecdotal findings and scientifically supported in- Reproductive Disorders vestigations suggest that general health and repro- Many dietary deficiencies or excesses may result in ductive success will be greater in birds fed “balanced” reduced reproductive performance due to infertility, formulated diets supplemented with limited fresh poor hatchability or nestling deaths. Calcium, vita- fruits and vegetables compared to birds fed seeds min E and selenium deficiencies may be associated supplemented with fresh fruits and vegetables (Fig- ure 31. Research findings and clinical experience suggest General Ill Health or Sudden Death that there is considerable interspecies variation in nutrient requirements and in clinical signs of malnu- Fatty liver infiltration may occur due to high fat trition. For example, some finches may consume up diets, fatty acid or B vitamin deficiencies and high- to 30% of their body weight, budgerigars, 25% of body energy diets in exercise-deprived birds (see Color 20). Ascites may be as- of extrapolating nutrient requirements, particularly sociated with excessive dietary levels of iron in birds of minerals, from poultry data when the level of food susceptible to iron storage disease (hemochroma- consumption varies dramatically. Atherosclerosis may be associated with diets also vary depending on the bird’s age and physiologic high in fat and cholesterol (see Color 14). Aortic rupture has been associated with copper defi- ciency in poultry and is suspected to occur in ratites (see Color 48). Protein and Amino Acids Protein in the diet is broken down into component Immune Response amino acids before being absorbed by the intestine. Adequate levels of both B complex (particularly pan- tothenic acid and riboflavin) and vitamin E have been shown to improve the body’s response to pathogens. In poultry, vitamin C and zinc are involved in T-cell re- sponse, and vitamin C stimulates macrophages and helps to counter the immunosuppressant effects of stress. Low vitamin A levels may result in a sub-opti- mal immune response and have been associated with the occurrence of aspergillosis in psittacines. Over- supplementation with fresh foods, as is the case with this daily vegetable bowl for a cockatoo, can actually cause malnutrition When one considers the array of ecological niches to through insufficient consumption of a formulated diet. For a bird the size of an Umbrella Cockatoo, the formulated diet should be which different species of birds are adapted, it is not supplemented with the equivalent of several slices of carrot (or surprising that there are major species differences in dark squash or sweet potato), one-eighth cup of spinach (or broccoli or endive) and several small slices of favorite fruits as a treat. Excess Dietary Protein Dietary protein requirements vary dramatically be- Diets for Birds with Renal Disease or Gout tween species. Broiler chickens and turkeys have Birds with renal disease or gout should be provided been genetically selected for rapid growth and are fed diets that decrease the workload of the kidneys and high protein levels to achieve maximum growth slow the loss of renal function. These feeding practices are rarely appropriate lower in protein and meet energy needs with non- in other species. Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, pheasants may contain nearly 30% protein, but sodium and vitamin D3 levels should be reduced to young ratites, waterfowl and psittacine birds require avoid renal mineralization. Using a high-protein diet in these sent in adequate amounts to ensure proper function latter species may result in clinical problems such as of the mucous membranes lining the ureters. B vita- airplane wing in ducks, deformed legs in ratites, poor mins should be increased to compensate for losses growth rates in psittacine birds and increased sus- associated with polyuria. Protein and Amino Acid Deficiencies Inappropriate calcium levels in the diet may com- Protein or specific amino acid deficiencies are occa- pound problems caused by excessive dietary protein. Insectivorous protein baby cereal with added vitamins and calcium birds require higher protein levels than granivores showed suboptimal growth rates. When the protein and generally require live food such as crickets or level in the diet was reduced by adding pureed fruits mealworms. If these insects are reared exclusively on and vegetables, the growth rate and the chick’s gen- bran, their total body protein may be low, and conse- eral health improved dramatically (see Chapter 30). Clinically, insecti- Nutritional data collected in juvenile cockatiels indi- vores receiving low-protein insects will have a his- cated that a protein level of 20% was optimal for this tory of recurrent disease problems. Levels of 10% produced stunting, poor that have been raised on dried dog food or encourag- growth and high mortality; levels over 25% produced ing insectivores to consume artificial diets with ap- transient behavioral changes such as biting, nerv- propriate levels of high quality protein prevents the ousness, rejection of food and regurgitation. In budgerigars, one study showed that a protein level Many seeds are relatively low in total protein and of 17 to 20% was optimal. Birds on low-protein seed may also be deficient in some essential amino acids diets increased their food intake and gained weight such as tryptophan, methionine, arginine or lysine. Those on low pro- Free-ranging, seed-eating birds will frequently eat tein (12%) mash diets lost weight, but some died with insects, particularly during the breeding season and their crops packed with food. Birds fed high-protein diets were very abnormal feathers as well as suboptimal growth and thin. Deficiencies of essential diet with 2% lysine and 10% protein (13 kcal/kg of amino acids are most likely to occur if birds are fed a body weight) is ideal. Gout is the deposition of uric acid crystals on body Serine, glycine and proline are the most abundant organs (visceral gout), in joints (articular gout) or in amino acids in feather keratin while methionine, the ureters (renal constipation) (see Color 21). High histidine, lysine and tryptophan occur at lower lev- dietary levels of protein and calcium, hypervitami- els. Changes ciated with impaired feather pigmentation in poul- in the taste or odor of rancid food stuffs did not occur try, but not in cockatiels. Rice and oats are particularly susceptible to becoming rancid Methionine deficiency has been associated with and are processed for foods through extrusion, rolling stress lines on feathers and fatty liver change. Many commercial diets contain antioxi- tine and methionine act as sources of glutathione, dants (propylene glycol or ethoxyquin) to prevent which has a sparing effect on vitamin E. Fats and Essential Fatty Acids Ventricular erosion may occur in birds fed highly Fats provide a concentrated source of energy.
If a doctor believes that a patient is the victim of physical or sexual abuse or neglect buy super avana 160mg low cost, he or she may disclose relevant information to an appropriate person or statu- tory agency in an attempt to prevent further harm to the patient purchase 160mg super avana visa. Another example of this exception is when a doctor believes that seeking permission for the disclosure would be damaging to the patient but that a close relative should know about the patient’s condition (e cheap super avana 160mg amex. The doctor must always act in the patient’s best medical interests and be prepared to justify his or her decision. Advice may be taken from appropriate colleagues and/or from a protection or defense organization or other profes- sional body. The Public Interest, Interest of Others, or Patients Who Are Violent or Dangerous Disclosure in the interests of others may be legitimate when they are at risk because a patient refuses to follow medical advice. Examples include patients who continue to drive when unfit to do so and against medical advice or who place others at risk by failing to disclose a serious communicable dis- ease. Each case demands careful consideration, and doctors who have any doubt regarding how best to proceed should not hesitate to seek appropriate counsel. Fundamental Principals 49 Doctors may also be approached by the police for information to assist them in apprehending the alleged perpetrator of a serious crime. A balance must be struck between the doctor’s duty to preserve the confidences of a patient and his or her duty as a citizen to assist in solving a serious crime where he or she has information that may be crucial to a police inquiry. In cases of murder, serious assaults, and rape in which the alleged assailant is still at large, the doctor may be persuaded that there is a duty to assist in the apprehension of the assailant by providing information, acquired profession- ally, that will be likely to assist the police in identifying and apprehending the prime suspect or suspects. However, where the accused person is already in custody, the doctor would be wise not to disclose confidential information without the agreement of the patient or legal advisers or an order from the court. Each case must be weighed on its own facts and merits, and the doctor may wish to seek advice from an appropriate source, such as a protection or defense organization. In the course of a consultation, a patient may tell a doctor that he or she intends to perpetrate some serious harm on another person—perhaps a close relative or friend or someone with whom there is a perceived need to “settle an old score. Indeed, a failure to act in such circumstances has led to adverse judicial rulings, as in the Tarasoff (26) case in California, in which a specialist psychologist failed to give a warning to the girlfriend of a patient who was later murdered by the patient. The court decided that although no general com- mon law duty exists to protect or warn third parties, a special relationship may impose such a duty. In the United Kingdom, a psychiatrist was sued because he had released, without the consent of a patient who was violent, a report prepared at the request of the patient’s solicitors in connection with an application for release from detention. The psychiatrist advised against release, and the solicitors decided not to make use of the report. The psychiatrist was so concerned about his findings that he released a copy of the report to the relevant authorities and, as a conse- quence, the patient’s application for release was refused. The patient’s subse- quent civil claim for compensation was rejected by the courts (27), which held 50 Palmer that the psychiatrist was entitled, under the circumstances, to put his duty to the public above the patient’s right to confidentiality. Every reasonable effort must be made to inform the concerned patients and to obtain their permission to disclose or publish case histories, photographs, and other information. Where consent cannot be obtained, the matter should be referred to a research ethics committee for guidance. Judicial and Statutory Exceptions Statutory provisions may require a doctor to disclose information about patients. In the United Kingdom they include, for example, notifications of births, miscarriages, and deaths; notifications of infectious diseases; notifica- tions of industrial diseases and poisonings; and notifications under the provi- sions of the Abortion Act of 1967. A doctor may be required to attend court and to answer questions if ordered to do so by the presiding judge, magistrate, or sheriff. When in the witness box, the doctor may explain that he or she does not have the consent of the patient to disclose the information (or indeed that the patient has expressly forbidden the doctor to disclose it), but the court may rule that the interests of justice require that the information held by the doctor about the patient be disclosed to the court. However, disclosure should only be made in judicial proceedings in one of two situations: first, when the presiding judge directs the doctor to answer, or second, when the patient has given free and informed consent. A request by any other person (whether police officer, court official, or lawyer) should be politely but firmly declined. As always, the doctor’s protection or defense organization will be pleased to advise in any case of doubt. Other statutory provisions of forensic relevance exist, but they are pecu- liar to individual countries or states and are not included here. In summary, it states that: “The police should be told whenever a person has arrived at a hospital with a gun shot wound,” but “at this stage identifying details, such as the patient’s name and address, should not usually be dis- closed. Ordinarily, the patient’s consent to disclose his or her name and other information must be sought and the treatment and care of the patient must be the doctor’s first concern. If the patient’s consent is refused, information may be disclosed only when the doctor judges that dis- closure would prevent others from suffering serious harm or would help pre- vent, detect, or prosecute a serious crime. In short, the usual principles of confidentiality apply, and any doctor who breaches confidentiality must be prepared to justify his or her decision. Good notes assist in the care of the patient, especially when doctors work in teams or partnership and share the care of patients with colleagues. Good notes are invalu- able for forensic purposes, when the doctor faces a complaint, a claim for compensation, or an allegation of serious professional misconduct or poor performance. The medical protection and defense organizations have long explained that an absence of notes may render indefensible that which may otherwise have been defensible. The existence of good notes is often the key factor in preparing and mounting a successful defense to allegations against a doctor or the institution in which he or she works. Notes should record facts objectively and dispassionately; they must be devoid of pejorative comment, wit, invective, or defamatory comments. Patients and their advisers now have increasing rights of access to their records and rights to request corrections of inaccurate or inappropriate infor- mation. In English law, patients have enjoyed some rights of access to their medical records since the passage of the Administration of Justice Act of 1970. The relevant law is now contained in the Data Protection Act of 1998, which came into effect on March 1, 2000, and repealed previous statutory provisions relating to living individuals, governing access to health data, such as the Data Protection Act of 1984 and the Access to Health Records Act of 1990. Unfortunately, space considerations do not permit an explanation of the detailed statutory provi- sions; readers are respectfully referred to local legal provisions in their coun- try of practice. The Data Protection Act of 1998 implements the requirements of the European Union Data Protection Directive, designed to protect people’s pri- vacy by preventing unauthorized or inappropriate use of their personal details. The Act, which is wide ranging, extended data protection controls to manual and computerized records and provided for more stringent conditions on pro- cessing personal data. The law applies to medical records, regardless of whether they are part of a relevant filing system. As well as the primary legislation (the Act itself), secondary or subordinate legislation has been enacted, such as the Data Protection (Subject Access Modification) (Health) Order of 2000, which allows information to be withheld if it is likely to cause serious harm to the mental or physical health of any person. Guidance notes about the operation of the legislation are available from professional bodies, such as the medical protection and defense organizations. In the United Kingdom, compliance with the requirements of the data protec- tion legislation requires that the practitioner adhere to the following: • Is properly registered as a data controller. It is important to understand the nature of the request and what is required—a simple report of fact, a report on present condition and prognosis after a medi- Fundamental Principals 53 cal examination, an expert opinion, or a combination of these. Because a doc- tor possesses expertise does not necessarily make him or her an expert witness every time a report is requested.
One hour from the 15 hour course will be reserved for tutorial discussion with the instructor during the preparation period buy 160 mg super avana with amex. Every student should read a given paper for every seminar and is expected to put the presenters questions concerning the topic a few days before the seminar buy super avana visa. The seminars can only be successful order super avana online, if students participate actively in the discussions. The first 2nd week: encounter: psychological characteristics and functions of Lecture: Psychological causes and consequences of history taking and of the diagnostic process. Psychological support of Requirements Requirements for signing the lecture book: By signing the Lecture Book the Department confirms that the student has met the academic requirements of the course and this enables him/her to take the examination. The Head of the Department may refuse to sign the Lecture Book if a student: is absent more than twice from practices even if he/she has an acceptable reason. The Department of Behavioural Sciences will adhere to the requirements of the General Academic Regulations and Rules of Examinations. Year, Semester: 3rd year/2nd semester Number of teaching hours: Practical: 30 1st week: 9th week: Practical: Áttekintés, ismétlés. A mellkas vizsgálata Practical: Anyagcsere- és endokrin betegségek 2nd week: 10th week: Practical: Légzőszervi betegségek Practical: A mozgásszervek vizsgálata, mozgásszervi betegségek 3rd week: Practical: A tüdő vizsgálata 11th week: Practical: Autoimmun betegségek 4th week: Practical: Szív- és érrendszeri betegségek 12th week: Practical: Az idegrendszer vizsgálata. Idegrendszeri 5th week: problémák Practical: A has vizsgálata 13th week: 6th week: Practical: Laboratóriumi és műszeres vizsgálatok Practical: Emésztőszervi betegségek 14th week: 7th week: Practical: Áttekintés, gyakorlás Practical: A vizeletkiválasztó szervek betegségei 15th week: 8th week: Practical: Szóbeli záróvizsga Practical: Oral mid-term exam Requirements Attendance Language class attendance is compulsory. The maximum percentage of allowable absences is 10 % which is a total of 2 out of the 15 weekly classes. Maximally, two language classes may be made up with another group and students have to ask for written permission (via e-mail) 24 hours in advance from the teacher whose class they would like to attend for a makeup because of the limited seats available. If the number of absences is more than two, the final signature is refused and the student must repeat the course. Students are required to bring the textbook or other study material given out for the course with them to each language class. If students’ behaviour or conduct does not meet the requirements of active participation, the teacher may evaluate their participation with a "minus" (-). If a student has 5 minuses, the signature may be refused due to the lack of active participation in classes. Testing, evaluation In Medical Hungarian course, students have to sit for a mid-term and an end-term written language tests and 2 short minimum requirement oral exams. A further minimum requirement is the knowledge of 200 words per semester announced on the first week. If a student has 5 or more failed or missed word quizzes he/she has to take a vocabulary exam that includes all 200 words along with the oral exam. The oral exam consists of a role-play randomly chosen from a list of situations announced in the beginning of the course. The result of the oral exam is added to the average of the mid-term and end-term tests. Based on the final score the grades are given according to the following table: Final score Grade 0 - 59 fail (1) 60-69 pass (2) 70-79 satisfactory (3) 80-89 good (4) 90-100 excellent (5) If the final score is below 60, the student once can take an oral remedial exam covering the whole semester’s material. Consultation classes In each language course once a week students may attend a consultation class with one of the teachers of that subject in which they can ask their questions and ask for further explanations of the material covered in that week. Website: Vocabulary minimum lists and further details are available on the website of the Department of Foreign Languages: ilekt. Practical: Presentation of a case with gout, osteoporosis Practical: Presentation of physiotherapy and exercise. Requirements Conditions of signing the Lecture book: The student is required to attend the practices. Should they miss a practice, however, they will be obliged to provide a well-documented reason for it. Missed practices should be made up for at a later date, to be discussed with the tutor. The student is expected to be able to communicate with the patient in Hungarian, including history taking. Year, Semester: 3rd year/2nd semester Number of teaching hours: Lecture: 45 Practical: 30 1st week: Lecture: 1. Pathogenesis Practical: Laboratory informatics and pathomechanism of diabetes mellitus Practical: Laboratory diagnostics of renal disorders 2nd week: Lecture: 4. Pathobiochemistry and clinical biochemistry of the Practical: Laboratory diagnostics of coagulopathias acute complications of diabetes mellitus18. Laboratory Laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant therapy diagnostics of hyperlipidemia21. Pathobiochemistry and laboratory diagnostics Practical: Serum lipid measurements of adrenal cortex disorders38. Pathobiochemistry and laboratory diagnostics Practical: Laboratory evaluation of liver and pancreas of cholestasis and cirrhosis29. Pathobiochemistry and function laboratory diagnostics of the gastrointestinal tract I. Laboratory diagnostics of muscle Practical: Chromatography, respiratory test disorders41. Self Control Test Demonsration of practical pictures Practical: Laboratory evaluation of liver and pancreas 11th week: function - case presentation Lecture: 31. Pathobiochemistry of thyroid disorders 15th week: Practical: Laboratory diagnostics of myocardial infarction Lecture: 43. Laboratory diagnostics of thyroid Requirements Participation at practicies: Participation at practicies is obligatory. One absence during the first semester and two absences during the second semester are allowed. In case of further absences practicies should be repeated by attending practices of another group on the same week. Requirements for signing the Lecture book: The Department may refuse to sign the Lecture book if the student is absent from practicies more than allowed in a semester. Assessment: In the whole year 5 written examinations are held, based on the material taught in the lectures and practicals. At the end of the first semester the written examinations are summarized and assessed by a five grade evaluation. If the student failed - based on the results of written exams - he must sit for an oral examination during the examination period. The student is exempt from written minimum entry test if her/his evaluation based on the 1st and 2nd semester points average is equal to or above 70% of the whole year total points. The final exam at the end of the second semester consists of two parts: a written minimum entry test and an oral exam (1 theoratical, 1 practical topic and 1 practical picture). The practical pictures will be demonstrated on the last lectures of the 2nd semester. Those who fail the minimum entry test, are not allowed to take the oral exam and they have to repeat the minimum entry test part as well. Those who fail the oral exam only, do not have to take the written test on the B or C chance. Requirements for examinations: The examination (written and oral) is based on the whole lecture and practical material (Practicals in Laboratory Medicine, eds.