By S. Marlo. Neumann College. 2019.
The face is composed of skin buy kamagra gold line, subcutaneous tissues order kamagra gold with american express, muscle kamagra gold 100 mg on line, bone, teeth, the sinuses, salivary glands, arteries, veins, and nerves. Skin and subcutaneous tissues—Carbuncles, cellulitis, sebaceous cysts; lipomas, carcinomas, angioneurotic edema, and so forth. Muscle—Myositis, myomas, hypertrophy Bone—Osteomas, metastatic tumor, multiple myelomas, osteomyelitis Teeth—Dental abscess, neoplasm Sinuses—Wegener midline granuloma, mucormycosis, neoplasm Salivary glands—Mumps, tumors, calculus, Mikulicz syndrome, Sjögren syndrome Arteries and veins—Hemangiomas, arteriovenous fistula Nerves—Neuroma, neurofibromatosis Approach to the Diagnosis If infection is suspected, smears and cultures of exudates should be done. If there is still doubt about the etiology, an oral surgeon or otolaryngologist should be consulted. Next, the internal maxillary artery suggests histamine cephalalgia and arteritis, just as the nerves suggest trigeminal neuralgia, herpes zoster, and the atypical facial neuralgias encountered in multiple sclerosis, Wallenberg syndrome, and other central nervous system conditions. Disorders of the eye that cause face pain are included in the section on eye pain (see page 164). Thus, V— Vascular conditions suggest histamine cephalalgia; I—Inflammatory conditions suggest herpes zoster, sinusitis, and dental abscesses; and N— Neoplasms suggest Schmincke tumors, carcinoma of the tongue, and so forth. Approach to the Diagnosis The approach to the diagnosis of face pain includes a careful history and physical examination with a good neurologic examination. The busy physician may want to refer the patient to a neurologist immediately, but this will obviously take away the challenge. Utilizing your knowledge of anatomy, what would be your list of possible causes for this man’s problem? Nevertheless, the clinician who begins treatment without ruling out other possibilities will eventually get burned. Anatomy is the key to recalling these possibilities before the patient leaves the office. Follow the facial nerve from its origin along its pathway to its termination, and all the causes should come to mind. They are usually distinguished from Bell palsy by the presence of other neurologic findings. Occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery will cause a peripheral facial palsy, but it can easily be distinguished from Bell palsy by the presence of a Horner syndrome, hoarseness, ataxia, and crossed hemianalgesia. N—Neoplasms include gliomas and the cerebellopontine angle tumor or acoustic neuroma. I—Inflammation suggests neurosyphilis, tuberculosis, brain abscess, and encephalitis. A—Autoimmune disease suggests multiple sclerosis, the collagen diseases, and early Guillain–Barré syndrome. Pathway: The facial nerve has a long pathway, and along that path, it can be destroyed by the following: A—Arterial aneurysms N—Neoplasms such as acoustic neuromas and parotid gland tumors I—Inflammatory conditions like herpes zoster (Ramsey–Hunt syndrome), petrositis, mastoiditis, and cholesteatomas T—Trauma such as basilar skull fractures and otologic surgery A—Autoimmune disease such as Bell palsy, or uveoparotid fever Termination: The site of termination of the facial nerve should suggest myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, and facial hemiatrophy. Approach to the Diagnosis The clinical picture will frequently help to determine the cause of facial paralysis. Peripheral facial palsy as occurs in Bell palsy involves the forehead muscles and there is difficulty in closing the eyelid, whereas central facial palsy involves the face and lips and there is often associated hemiplegia or monoplegia. When there is exclusively a peripheral facial palsy without hearing loss or other neurologic signs, Bell palsy should be strongly suspected, although diabetes and myasthenia gravis need to be excluded. A bilateral peripheral nerve palsy should make one consider Guillain–Barré syndrome as well as Lyme disease; be on the lookout for paralysis of the extremities as well. A “Bell palsy” with hearing loss and an aural discharge should prompt consideration of mastoiditis and petrositis. If there is hearing loss without a discharge, the possibility of an acoustic neuroma or cholesteatoma must be entertained. The association of a central facial palsy with hemiplegia brings up a host of possibilities including subdural hematoma, brain abscess, brain tumor, and cerebrovascular accident. If the patient has clinical Bell palsy, one could start a therapy without a workup, but it is wise to get an x-ray of the skull and mastoids to rule out mastoiditis and petrositis and a glucose tolerance test to rule out diabetes. An acetylcholine receptor antibody titer or Tensilon test would only be ordered if the palsy were intermittent or there were other cranial nerve signs. Examination revealed weakness of the right facial muscles and inability to close his right eye. Utilizing the methods presented above, what would you consider in the differential diagnosis at this point? A neurologist is consulted and his examination shows weakness of the left facial muscles as well. Furthermore, there is mild weakness and loss of sensation in all four extremities and diminished deep tendon reflexes. Endocrine system: This would bring to mind the coarse facial features of myxedema and cretinism, the proptosis of hyperthyroidism, the moon face of Cushing syndrome, and the square protruding jaw of acromegaly. Cardiovascular system: This should prompt the recall of the malar flush in mitral stenosis and the cyanosis of congenital heart disease. Nervous system: This should suggest the masked face of Parkinsonism, the hatchet-shaped face of myotonic dystrophy, the snarl of myasthenia gravis, and the drawing of the face to one side in Bell palsy with flattening of the nasolabial fold. It should also suggest the expressionless face and often drooling mouth of bulbar and pseudobulbar palsy and sarcastic smile of patients with tetanus. Skeletal system: This would bring to mind the protruding forehead of Paget disease and the wide separation of the eyes in hypertelorism. Approach to the Diagnosis Obviously, the workup of abnormal facies will depend on what disease is suggested by the facial appearance combined with other abnormalities of the physical and neurologic examination. The physiologic model of intake, absorption, transport, and utilization will help develop a differential diagnosis. Intake: Intake of food may be impaired by social conditions of poverty, malnutrition, and child abuse. It may also be impaired by chronic anxiety and depression or other psychiatric disorders. Finally, the patient may not eat because of a neurologic disorder such as microcephaly, hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, or other disorders associated with mental retardation. Absorption: Absorption of food may be impaired by malabsorption syndrome and fibrocystic disease. Transport: This topic brings to mind chronic anemia and congenital heart disease especially when associated with hypoxemia. Utilization: Utilization of food is impaired in diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, pituitary insufficiency, galactosemia, and uremia. The child may also come from an abnormal gestation where the mother suffered alcoholism, drug abuse, or chronic illness. At this point, it is helpful to consult a pediatrician before ordering expensive diagnostic tests. It may occur, however, in certain cases of peripheral neuropathy, in electrolyte disturbances, and in myasthenia gravis, especially under treatment. It is also found in healthy states, most commonly in the twitching of the orbicularis oculi muscle from nervous tension or eyestrain. V—Vascular conditions include anterior spinal artery occlusion and intermittent claudication from peripheral vascular disease. I—Inflammatory diseases include poliomyelitis, viral encephalomyelitis, tetanus, syphilis, and diphtheria.
An acute infection will show an increase in immature leukocytes called a left shift discount 100 mg kamagra gold fast delivery. Glucose Hyperglycemia cheap 100 mg kamagra gold otc, despite using the normal dose of insulin 100mg kamagra gold fast delivery, may indicate an infection. Types of Debridement Surgical Debridement Sharp or surgical procedure that is mostly selective, causing little or no damage to healthy tissue. Mechanical Debridement Nonselective procedure performed by changing wet-to-dry gauze dressings or hydrotherapy. As the gauze is removed, necrotic tissue comes along with it; drainage and debris are stuck to the dressing. Bone Becomes Infected by One of Three Ways Hematogenous—enters bone via the bloodstream (most common) Contiguous—spread from adjacent soft tissue Direct inoculation—trauma or surgical 373 Acute Osteomyelitis Occurs from the time the bone becomes infected until portions of the bone become necrotic. The earliest radiographic signs of osteomyelitis are usually osteolysis, cortical erosions, and periosteal reaction. Once a chronic osteomyelitis develops, antibiotics alone are rarely effective and must be combined with surgical debridement of necrotic bone. Bony changes take about 2 weeks to show up on x-ray after there has been a 50% loss of bone. Osteomyelitis usually initially presents as osteolysis along with periosteal reaction and cortical erosions. As osteomyelitis progresses, areas of both osteolucency and sclerosis may develop along with gross remodeling of bone. A sequestrum is a complication of osteomyelitis, where a portion of dead bone becomes separated from the surrounding bone and is found “floating” within an area of necrosis and resorbed bone. Over time, the sequestrum may become encased in a cloak of living bone formed from periosteal reaction called an involucrum. An opening may develop in the involucrum, allowing the necrotic purulent material out of the bone. Diagram: 374 Involucrum—thickened periosteum Sequestrum—dead bone Cloaca—pus-filled space where the sequestrum resides Sinus tract—opening to the outside Brodie Abscess 375 A form of subacute osteomyelitis without involucrum and usually with no sequestrum. A Brodie abscess is essentially a mild form of osteomyelitis due to decreased organism virulence. The infection becomes walled off by reactive bone and may remain dormant for years or indefinitely. Radiographically it takes the form of a radiolucent cavity surrounded by dense sclerotic bone and fibrous tissue. This condition may be subclinical on exam, and patients may be asymptomatic or have only mild local pain. Bone Scans Tc-99 bone scan is positive in all phases especially 3rd phase, which is highly sensitive for osteomyelitis. Treatment Patients presenting with gas in the tissue, necrotizing fasciitis, or overt clinical signs of infection such as fever, chills, and streaking up the leg should be considered a medical emergency. These situations require the patient to be admitted to the hospital and prompt surgical intervention and/or antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics alone, for osteomyelitis, may be effective if started in the acute phase. If the entire infected site has been removed, as with an amputation, the site may be primarily closed. In instances where the entire infected site has been removed via amputation, postoperative antibiotics may not be required. Antibiotic Beads Following surgical I&D for osteomyelitis, antibiotic-impregnated beads can be used in conjunction with other therapy. The bone cement is mixed intraoperatively from a kit containing powdered polymer and a liquid monomer to form a solid structure. The beads are usually strung together on a piece of nylon suture in a “string of pearls” fashion before insertion. The number of beads inserted should be counted and put in the operative report; so when they are removed, the surgeon knows how many to look for. Antibiotics most commonly used to meet these criteria include vancomycin, tobramycin, and gentamicin. The amount of antibiotics used varies widely but generally 2 to 4 g of antibiotics per 40 g of cement. There are also commercially available antibiotic beads that come with the antibiotics already in the set, and there are also biodegradable (calcium sulfate) antibiotic beads available. Antibiotic beads can be left in much longer, but in theory after all the antibiotics have leached out of the cement, the beads themselves become a place for bacteria to hide and multiply. With increased bone blood flow, the bone becomes washed out and weak, and with impaired deep pain sensation on proprioception, small periarticular fractures go unnoticed until the entire joint is destroyed. The majority of Charcot joints are the result of trauma and impaired sensation caused by neuropathy. Painless swelling is the hallmark sign of Charcot foot; however, about half of the patients present with a chief complaint of pain. Bony protuberances are clinically important because they may develop sites for future neuropathic pressure ulcers. Treatment Patients should be instructed to remain totally non-weight-bearing immediately upon diagnosis to prevent further bone destruction. Treatment for Charcot foot also includes rest, elevation, and cast immobilization. Once bony consolidation has begun and the foot has stabilized, a custom- molded accommodative insert is indicated or a pair of custom-molded shoes depending on the extent of the deformity. Surgery on the Charcot foot is aimed at removing either bony prominences or arthrodesis to realign and stabilize the architecture of the foot. They come as a flexible, waterproof, self-adhesive wafer that, when combined with water (exudate), forms a soft gel mass. Hydrocolloid dressings are made from materials such as gelatin or pectin that contain hydrocolloid granules or powder. Provides a moist wound healing environment, but holds no properties to absorb wound exudate. Also useful for minor burns, simple injuries, and treatment of superficial pressure area. They maintain a moist wound environment, but if a wound has too little exudate, the wound can dry out. Mepilex, PolyMem, Mep Allevyn, Hydrosorb, Epilock, Lyofoam, Mitraflex, Flexzan, Mitraflex, Biatain, CarraSmart, Curafoam, Cutinova, Orifoam, Polyderm, Sof-foam, Reston, Tielle, VigiFoam Hydrogel Hydrogels are indicated for dry wounds where rehydration of eschar is desired. Also useful in deeper wounds where structures such as tendons need to be kept moist. They also have a hemostatic effect and are used at donor sites postsurgically and other bleeding areas. Ischemia occurs after 2 to 6 hours of unrelieved pressure, and necrosis occurs after 6 hours of continuous pressure.
The authors did conclude purchase kamagra gold 100mg on-line, however cheapest kamagra gold, that longer follow-up was necessary to see if any differences surfaced beyond 2 years and to determine what the incidence of articular surface damage was from use of arrows cheap 100mg kamagra gold free shipping. All repairs healed in the outside-in group, 95% healed in the inside-out group, and 35% healed in the all-inside group (p <. Oper- ating time was 39 minutes for outside-in, 18 minutes for inside-out, and 14 minutes for all-inside (p <. Thirty-six inside-out meniscus repairs were evaluated by second-look arthroscopy at a mean follow-up of 5 months. Eighty-four percent of the meniscus repairs were graded as good or excel- lent, whereas 16% were graded as poor. Of all repairs, 11 patients (24%) experienced repair failure with secondary meniscal débridement, with 11% classifed as atraumatic failure. Advantages cited included ease of accessing the mid-body and anterior meniscus and avoiding neurovascular damage with- out a large posterior incision. A total of 198 meniscal tears with a major segment in the central avascular region were repaired with an inside-out technique and followed an average of 18 months. Eighty percent were asymp- tomatic for knee symptoms, and 20% required repeat arthroscopic surgery for symptoms. Of the 91 meniscus repairs evaluated arthroscopically, 25% were healed, 38% were partially healed, and 36% failed. While there were no signifcant differences in failure rates between the groups, the follow-up was 3. Steenbrugge F, Verdonk R, Verstraete K: Long-term assessment of arthroscopic meniscus repair: a 13- year follow-up study, Knee 9:181–187, 2002. Eighty-eight percent had good or excellent results at latest follow-up, and most of these patients had no Fair- banks changes on follow-up radiographs. Forty-fve percent had complete healing, 32% had partial healing, and 24% had no evidence of healing. Poor healing was seen in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus; the remaining locations of the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus healed normally. However, a hypertrophic fat pad that limits visualization of the meniscus will require débridement. This is used to determine the depth gauge or hard “stop” of the implant to prevent overpenetration while allowing for adequate soft-tissue clearance and implant deployment on the capsule. Once in ideal position, the to the meniscal tear, which often requires capsular implant may be deployed using the trigger mechanism. Stability and adequate burying of implant should be confrmed prior to • Rigid implants or those with prominent proceeding to the second pass. Under continued arthroscopic visualization, a knot pusher, arthro- between implant passes. Often, meniscal root tears are scarred peripherally in a nonanatomic position, • Attempted meniscal root repair will be largely and continued radial sectioning must be performed to afford adequate mobility. The authors evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of multiple all-inside repair devices with the traditional gold standard, vertical mattress inside-out repair technique using various high- tensile sutures. The authors present a comprehensive review of the important functional and biomechanical reper- cussions of meniscal root tears, which are defned as direct root avulsions from the tibial plateau or radial tears directly adjacent to these root attachments. When torn, relative meniscal extrusion and loading behavior comparable to a complete meniscectomy may result, while direct anatomic repair can result in restoration of normal loading mechanics and potentially diminish the risk for subsequent tibiofemoral arthritis. Forty-two meniscal tears in 37 patients were prospectively evaluated over an average follow-up of 24. All tears were in the red-red or red-white zones, and all had a peripheral meniscal rim of at least 2 mm and an average tear length of 2. All repairs healed in the outside-in group, 95% healed in the inside-out group, and 35% healed in the all-inside group (p <. Oper- ating time was 39 minutes for outside-in, 18 minutes for inside-out, and 14 minutes for all-inside (p <. The modifed Mason–Allen suture confguration demonstrated the highest maximum load and yield load on biomechanical cyclical testing porcine medial meniscal root tears, with superiority to hori- zontal mattress sutures or modifed loop stitches. However, two simple stitches may also represent an alternative given its similarly favorable stiffness and relative technical ease. All tears were verti- cal tears and located within the red-red or red-white zones. At an average follow-up of 18 months (14–28 months), there were six failures, giving a success rate of 90. In a cadaveric study comparing three techniques for meniscal repair, inside out meniscal repair demonstrated higher gap formation than either suture-based or anchor-based all-inside meniscal repair with cyclical loading. There were no statistically signifcant differences in stiffness between the three repair techniques, whereas the all-inside suture-based and inside-out repair techniques demonstrated higher loads to failure than the anchor-based, all-inside repairs. Based on the available literature, the existing literature reveals that failure rates of all-inside menis- cal repair (24. Fifty-four meniscal tears in 46 patients who underwent all-inside meniscal repair with the Rapid- Loc device were retrospectively reviewed after at least 2 years of follow-up (mean 34. Symptomatic patients were evaluated by magnetic resonance arthrography and repeat arthroscopy. Predictive variables for failure included bucket-handle tears, multiplanar tears, tear length greater than 2 cm, and chronicity longer than 3 months. This laboratory analysis compares two all-inside repair devices with two different suture-based, inside-out repair techniques in a laboratory porcine model. The authors identifed that inside-out suture repair had similar biomechanical properties with cyclical loading and demonstrated no superiority relative to all-inside repair constructs. While there were no signifcant differences in failure rates between the groups, the follow-up was 3½ years shorter for the meniscal arrow repairs. All devices survived cyclic loading with no sig- nifcant difference in displacement. A limited arthrotomy may be performed • 3/8-inch osteotome early to facilitate preparation for bone trough/tunnels, or this may be deferred until • Battery-powered drill ready for graft passage. Anteromedial Tibial Approach • Percutaneous or small (2 cm to 3 cm) incision may be placed along the anteromedial tibia beginning at the level of the tibial tubercle for medial or lateral meniscus trans- plantation. Posterolateral Accessory Approach • A 3-cm to 4-cm incision is placed at the tibial joint line just posterior to the lateral collateral ligament with the knee in 90° of fexion, with one third of the incision above and two thirds below. Step 4: Allograft Meniscus Preparation • Lateral meniscus allograft • Peripheral meniscal tissue is exposed to provide a fresh surface for repair. Alternatively, 2-0 nonabsorbable sutures with attached needles may be passed directly through the meniscus and capsule in inside-out fashion. Alternatively, 2-0 nonabsorbable sutures with attached needles may be passed directly through the meniscus and capsule in inside-out fashion. Modern through zone-specifc cannulas placed through the anteromedial or anterolateral all-inside fxators may result in comparable portals, with alternating superior (Fig.
Macrocytic anaemia vitamin B12 or folate defciency related to nutritional defciency order 100mg kamagra gold free shipping, e buy genuine kamagra gold on line. Normocytic normochromic anaemia usually refects chronic disease buy kamagra gold 100mg free shipping, and the degree of anaemia may vary with disease severity, e. Dimorphic anaemia (large and small red cells) this picture is seen in mixed defciency, e. It is a feature of malabsorption associated with coeliac-related arthritis, scleroderma of the gut, and jejunal bypass arthritis. White cell count White cell count may be helpful in diagnosis and monitoring disease activity and is essential for monitoring immunosuppressive therapies. Bm biopsy may need to be consid- ered to distinguish from ° haematological disorders. Newly raised eosinophils should heighten awareness of potential adverse reactions to disease-modifying drugs. Renal function Renal function is measured in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease. A wide range of diseases may involve the kidney, including vasculitis, sle, sjögren’s syndrome, and gout. Drug treatment should also be considered as a cause for decline in renal function in rheuma- tology patients, e. Defnitive diagnosis of gout can only be made by identifcation of urate crystals by polarizing light microscopy of joint fuid or in biopsy. Liver function tests these are measured in the monitoring of many disease-modifying agents, e. Bone function Serum calcium Hypercalcaemia should raise suspicion of malignancy, metabolic bone dis- ease, and sarcoidosis. In metabolic bone disease/hyperparathyroidism, Ca2+ is not always elevated and a ‘high normal’ result may be signifcant in the correct clinical context. In isolation, it is more likely to be related to bone and further investigation, e. Alp is high in paget’s disease, hyperparathyroidism, fractures, and bony metastases. Phosphate Hypophosphataemia occurs in hyperparathyroidism and hereditary and acquired hypophosphatasia. In cases of hypocalcaemia, low ptH suggests ° parathyroid disease, whereas normal or raised ptH suggests ptH resistance (E Hypercalcaemia, pp. Urinary calcium urinary Ca2+ is useful in the investigation of hypercalcaemia and elevated ptH. Bone markers Bone turnover markers are available but have limited use due to the requirement for consistent sample collection, especially for bone resorption markers. Detection of antibodies against specifc antigens is useful for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes and less often monitoring disease activity. It may also be +ve in other autoimmune diseases, malignancy, and chronic infection. First described in 1998, they are high-afnity Igg class antibodies that react with the amino acid citrulline and are measured by elIsA. Indeed, it is +ve in 90–99% of cases of lupus, in over 90% of cases of scleroderma, and in many cases of sjögren’s syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, and myositis. Although not specifc, some clinicians may use these in deter- mining the relevance of the test, e. Anti-centromere antibodies are particularly associated with limited cutaneous scleroderma, and anti-scl-70 with difuse systemic sclerosis. Antiphospholipid antibodies ° Aps (thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and fetal loss) and other connec- tive tissue diseases are associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. A single +ve result should be interpreted with caution, and the test should be repeated after 6 weeks to determine relevance. A high titre and Igg-type antibody may be of greater clinical relevance than a low titre and Igm. However, as it occurs in about 8% of the popula- tion, it is not helpful as a screening test in such a common symptom as back pain (approximately two-thirds of HlA-B27 +ve individuals with back pain would not have ankylosing spondylitis). Reactive and infection-related arthritis Where reactive arthritis is suspected, appropriate serology and swabs should be sent. Where an infection-related arthritis is suspected, specifc investigations should be requested, e. Where infection is excluded, the joint may be therapeu- tically injected with a steroid (e. Synovial fuid examination Physical characteristics observation of the colour and consistency of the synovial fuid is helpful in diagnosis. Microscopy White cell count and the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (neutro- phils) should be measured in synovial fuid. RhA (5000–75,000/mm3, >50%), and septic arthritis (>50,000/ mm3, >75%) than normal (<200/mm3, <25%) or osteoarthritis (200– 10,000/ mm3, <50%). A gram stain and culture should be performed to detect organisms in suspected septic arthritis. Arthroscopy Arthroscopy and synovial biopsy may occasionally be required for the diag- nosis of chronic indolent infections, such as tB, or unusual slow-growing organisms such as Coxiella (fever polyarthritis). Arthroscopy is essentially a diagnostic procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons where direct visualiza- tion of the afected joint is required. NeuRopHysIology 755 Neurophysiology these are dynamic electrical nerve and muscle tests that are performed in the context of appropriate clinical history and examination. It is not a substitute for clinical examination, and fndings should be inter- preted in the context of clinical abnormalities. It is important to follow the guidelines for radiological investigations published by the Royal College of Radiologists. Infammatory arthritis It is important to diagnose infammatory arthritis as early as possible, as timely treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs improves outcomes in terms of function, joint damage, quality of life, and costs to health service usage. Although conventional X-rays can be useful in diagno- sis, this is generally only when disease is established and structural damage to the joints has already occurred. Radiographs of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joints may be utilized in distinguishing mechanical and infammatory (e. Changes seen in infammatory back disease include sacroiliitis (sclerosis and joint space loss), squaring of the vertebrae, bony proliferation along vertebrae (syndesmophytes), and spondylodis- citis. However, changes do not usually occur early in disease, and it can be difcult to distinguish changes from degenerative disease (osteophytes, loss of disc height). For example, a knee or hip would be required if joint replacement surgery may be appropriate, or a shoulder if calcifc tendinitis is considered. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is another cause of periostitis, which can signify underlying disease, e. Radiological features are of radiolucent areas associated with bone widen- ing, then subsequent coarsening of trabeculae and areas of i radiodensity/ sclerosis. In advanced disease, there may be bowing of the bone, pathological fracture, and i risk of osteosarcoma.
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