By W. Ugrasal. Palmer College of Chiropractic.
How will your organization manage patient adherence and monitoring with oral oncology medications and what level of support will be offered? In general cheapest generic tadora uk, what is the current level of staff education and knowledge base on treatment with oral oncology medications? What competency training will be provided to your organization’s staff to review the integration of oral oncology medications (eg cheap tadora 20mg on line, documentation processes buy 20 mg tadora fast delivery, patient education support)? How will your practice develop a patient-education plan for those who are prescribed treatment with oral oncology medications and who will be responsible for leading this effort? Will your practice be able to attend off-site presentations related to oral oncology management? What are your organization’s main areas of strengths and how can these strengths be leveraged? What are your organization’s main areas of weakness and how can these weaknesses be addressed? Notes: Oral Oncology Medication Therapy Management Flowsheet When prescribing therapy with an oral oncology medication, the processes and flow of patient care is different compared to when prescribing therapy with intravenous oncology medication. While the structure and dynamics of each organization is different, this resource reviews sample considerations related to navigating a core set of key components for managing patient therapy with oral oncology medications. Operations, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • Managing flow patterns and operational processes specific to treating a patient who is prescribed oral oncology medications throughout the care continuum, from treatment planning and financial review through medication acquisition and educational training Operations Assessment, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • Conducting baseline patient readiness assessments to evaluate if patients are appropriate candidates for therapy with oral oncology medications Assessment Access, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • Conducting financial review of patient access to insurance or other assistance programs, including identifying support resources • Understanding the methods of acquiring oral oncology medications, most commonly through an in-house dispensing pharmacy or specialty pharmacy, including the specific considerations for each route of access Access Treatment plan, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • Conducting comprehensive review of the patient’s medical care with oral oncology medications, including informed consent, obtaining clinical history, performing clinical evaluations and review, and developing an adherence plan, among other considerations Treatment Plan Communication, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • At a practice level, ensuring effective and coordinated communication among all providers who are part of a patient’s health care team • At a patient level, understanding when and how to communicate with the health care team, including issues related to correctly administering the oral oncology medication, monitoring adherence, and managing side effects, among other considerations Communication Education, as a core component of oral oncology management, involves: • At a practice level, establishing an educational program and developing a curriculum as needed • At a patient level, receiving educational training related to therapy with oral oncology medications EducationEducation Operations Questions for the organization to review internally 1. Who in the organization will discuss access considerations with the patient, including financial review and medication acquisition? Who in the organization will develop the treatment plan and review on an ongoing basis as needed? Who in the organization will manage communication with other providers in the health care team as needed, as well as communicate with the patient and caregiver? Who in the organization will provide educational training to the patient and caregiver? Assessment Questions for the health care team to review with the patient Physical Ability 1. Do you feel you may have any difficulty understanding how and when to take your medication as well as keeping track of any side effects? Do you feel anxious, upset, tired, or experience sleepiness that may affect taking your medication as prescribed? Is anyone assisting and providing support during your treatment, such as family members, friends, partners, caregiver, or any other contact? Do you feel you will be able to take your medication based on a regular schedule, as prescribed? What do you think your role is during your treatment and what do you expect of me? Will you be able to come here regularly to fill your prescription (if dispensed through in-house pharmacy)? Can you drive in or arrange for transportation to come here regularly for routine follow-up appointments? Has your insurance ever prevented you from being able to obtain or fill your medication? Other Considerations Do you have any other concerns that I should be aware of which may affect your ability to take oral medications? Access Considerations for the health care team to review and involve the patient as needed Patient Financial Review 1. If yes, what is the name of the insurance company, name of the health plan, and if applicable, name of the pharmacy benefit manager? Is the oral oncology medication covered under the patient’s health plan medical benefit or pharmacy benefit? Does the patient’s health plan require prior authorization for the oral oncology medication before therapy initiation? If the maximum out-of-pocket requirement has not yet been met in full, how much is remaining? Does the patient have any other secondary or supplemental insurance benefits that would require coordination? Does the patient’s health plan have any specific coding or claims submission guidelines for reporting the oral oncology medication? What assistance programs and/or foundations may be available to support the patient’s therapy? Does the patient’s insurance mandate specific acquisition requirements for the oral oncology medication? Treatment Plan Considerations for the health care team to review and involve the patient as needed Informed Consent q Yes, my patient has provided signed, informed consent to receive treatment with oral oncology medication q No, my patient has not provided signed, informed consent to receive treatment with oral oncology medication Medical & Treatment History 1. Social considerations, such as drugs/alcohol/tobacco use, religion, sexual history, and employment status Clinical Evaluations Imaging studies/laboratory work/scans/tests Clinical Review 1. Schedule for routine, follow-up visits Progress Notes Communication Considerations for the health care team to review and involve the patient as needed Health Care Team Communication: Coordinating Therapy Management 1. Communication to primary care physician advising of patient’s current therapy, including details on date and method of communication 2. Communication to other specialist advising of patient’s current therapy, including details on date and method of communication 3. Communication to specialty pharmacy advising of patient’s current therapy, including details on date and method of communication Patient and Caregiver Communication: Topics to Consider Which of the following topics have been discussed with the patient? In this fact sheet, an overview of the benefits and challenges as well as considerations for each method are reviewed. Support point-of-care dispensing and be willing to discuss with each patient the opportunity to obtain his or her prescribed medications Considerations 2. Plan for point-of-care dispensing and devote the necessary time to successfully train all personnel for Health Care 3. Dispense oral oncology medications in an area of the office that is mindful of patient flow and individual Providers & state requirements Staff 4. Stock all medications generally required by patients as well as be mindful of volumes and averages 5. Case managers know when patients receive their medications and can educate patients at the outset Considerations about the course of therapy, side effects, and dosing schedule for Health Care 2. Medication therapy management service informs case managers when to be on the lookout for specific toxicities Providers & and other issues that clinical trials and other patient experiences have made apparent Staff 3. Physicians receive regular e-mails and phone calls from case managers regarding their patients taking oral oncology medications Benefits1 Challenges1 • Provides additional patient education by phone or mail • Potential challenge with communication about patient • Delivers medication to patient at no additional costs care between the specialty pharmacy and oncology Specialty practice • Likely able to custom pack doses to avoid multiple Pharmacy copayments • Patients may have concerns about working with a • Works closely with various insurance plans pharmacy by phone References: 1. Anti-infectives Fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin (Cipro), Lomefloxacin has higher gemifloxacin (Factive), levofloxacin incidence than other (Levaquin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), quinolones, no reports with moxifloxacin (Avelox), norfloxacin (Noroxin), gatifloxacin.
They should be given in low doses and taken in the morning initially order tadora 20mg online, preferably before 8 a best tadora 20mg. Side effects include palpitations order tadora with a mastercard, high blood pressure, confusion, psychosis and insomnia (if the dose is too high or taken too late in the day). The non-stimulant modafinil (Provigil®), approved only for treatment of narcolepsy, also is potentially useful. Its mode of action in the brain is unknown, but it has a good track record of reducing daytime sleepiness with fewer side effects because it is not a stimulant like methylphenidate and the amphetamines. In addition, the drugs commonly used to treat high blood pressure can make orthostasis worse. Any person who experiences orthostatic symptoms should inform all healthcare providers involved with their care. A good example of a frequent and straightforward parallel problem (or comorbidity) is back, neck and limb pain due almost always to degenerative arthritis of the spine. Orthostatic hypotension is usually the primary reason for the symptom, but general medical causes, especially involving the heart or lungs, must be explored. In addition, other medications prescribed by other physicians and healthcare providers, particularly medications for high blood pressure, should be thoroughly considered. Communication between all treating physicians and members of the healthcare team is mandatory in these matters. The following non-pharmacologic techniques are important: • Change positions slowly, particularly when rising from a seated to a standing position. If the foregoing measures are not effective, then ask your physician or healthcare provider if medications to raise blood pressure would be appropriate in your case. Fludrocortisone (Florinef®) will increase blood pressure by increasing retention of salt and blood volume. Leg edema (swelling) and high blood pressure when lying flat are potential adverse effects. Midodrine (Proamatine®) increases blood pressure by stimulating the autonomic nervous system directly and is dosed three times per day. The development of high blood pressure when lying flat is greater with midodrine than fludrocortisone and should be carefully monitored. Pyridostigmine (Mestinon®) can be used either as monotherapy or as an adjunctive drug to augment the blood pressure raising effect of flodrocortisone and midodrine. Ordinarily used to treat the neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis, Mestinon® has been evaluated in two single dose clinical trials (one open-label and one placebo-controlled), both of which showed a small but statistically significant elevating effect on diastolic blood pressure. Only one study, an open-label survey, has examined the long-term effect of using Mestinon® for orthostatic hypotension. Therefore, the continued effectiveness of Northera should be assessed periodically by your doctor. Similar to midodrine and fludrocortisone, there is potential for the development of high blood pressure when lying flat (supine hypertension) that should be monitored carefully. Northera is only available through specialty pharmacies; your doctor has to complete a treatment form and fax it to the Northera Support Center to prescribe it. Slowed gastric emptying translates into gas and bloating, nausea, loss of appetite and pain. All of these symptoms vary in their responses to treatment with antiparkinson drugs, but usually improve with the use of drugs that specifically speed gastrointestinal movement. Dopaminergic medications can worsen nausea, but the addition of extra carbidopa (Lodosyn®) to the prefixed mixture of carbidopa/levodopa in Sinemet® usually helps to prevent or lessen this side effect. It should not be combined with apomorphine as it can cause lowering of blood pressure. Fortunately, good dietary management and the prudent use of stool softeners, laxatives and other bowel modulators are usually helpful. There are several steps to good dietary management and preventive maintenance: • Drink plenty of water and fluids. Another option for the treatment of constipation is lubiprostone (Amitiza®) which increases the secretion of fluid in your intestines to help make it easier to pass stools (bowel movements). Guidance from the neurologist, primary care doctor or healthcare provider on how to use and combine these agents is essential. It results not from overproduction of saliva but from slowing of the automatic swallowing reflex that normally clears saliva from the mouth. When severe, drooling is an indicator of more serious difficulty with swallowing (also known as dysphagia), which can cause the person to choke on food and liquids, or can lead to aspiration pneumonia. Treatment of drooling is not always effective, but the list of therapies includes: • Glycopyrrolate and other oral anticholinergic medications (trihexyphenidyl, benztropine, hycosamine). Usually this is perceived as a side effect (dry mouth), but in this case it is an advantage. Other anticholinergic side effects may be seen, including drowsiness, confusion, vomiting, dizziness, blurred vision, constipation, flushing, headache and urinary retention. This patch offers anticholinergic medicine that slows production of saliva as it is absorbed into the entire bloodstream, and anticholinergic side effects similar to oral agents may be seen. Injection of botulinum toxin A (Botox®) into the salivary glands of the cheek and jaw decreases production of saliva without side effects, except for thickening of oral mucus secretion. Botox is not always effective, but when it works the benefit can last for several months before it wears off and re-injection is necessary. Gum activates the jaw and the automatic swallowing muscles reflex and can help clear saliva. The dosage prescribed by your doctor and your effective dose may vary from dosages listed. As with other non- motor complaints, it is important to exclude other possible causes of urinary frequency, including urinary tract infection and enlarged prostate. Medications that can help re-establish bladder control: • Anticholinergic medications can relax the overactive muscular wall of the bladder and allow the bladder to fill to greater capacity without suddenly emptying. These drugs may also be indicated in men if an enlarged prostate is found to be a reason for the symptom. Your physician or healthcare provider can assess which is most appropriate for your situation. They typically are not responsive to dopaminergic medications but can be remedied by the use of drugs that relax the bladder and allow it to fill to a greater capacity. It affects men more often than women, though little has been published in the research literature about this topic. It remains underappreciated as patients, partners and healthcare providers may not be comfortable with a frank discussion of sex. This topic certainly deserves attention, so you and/or your partner may need to initiate a conversation with someone on your healthcare team. Gila Bronner, a sex therapist in Israel who works with people with Parkinson’s, offers the following observations. If there are times of the day when 42 Parkinson’s Disease: Medications your functioning is optimal, such as when you are rested and medications are minimizing symptoms, this could be a good time to express yourself with a loved one.
The changing demographics of total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis buy 20 mg tadora with amex. Rheu- arthroplasty recipients in the United States and Ontario matology (Oxford) 2016 buy generic tadora 20 mg line;55:573–82 purchase 20mg tadora free shipping. J Clin Epidemiol 2013;66:719– nomic burden of periprosthetic joint infection in the 25. Going mendations on immunization: recommendations of the from evidence to recommendation-determinants of a rec- Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. The effect of combined estrogen and progester- early postoperative complications in patients with rheuma- one hormone replacement therapy on disease activity in toid arthritis undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Combined oral contraceptives in ment on the incidence of infectious complications after women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;6: matoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheumatol American Society of Echocardiography, American Society 2015;67 Suppl:S2664. Strand V, Ahadieh S, French J, Geier J, Krishnaswami S, Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascu- Menon S, et al. Mod Rheumatol 2015;25: surgery patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of 672–8. Etanercept for the treatment of rheumatoid The comparative efﬁcacy and safety of biologics for the arthritis. Etanercept in the treat- tematic review and meta-analysis of rare harmful effects in ment of ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis of random- randomized controlled trials. Capogrosso Sansone A, Mantarro S, Tuccori M, Ruggiero E, interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis and other inﬂamma- Montagnani S, Convertino I, et al. Safety proﬁle of tory rheumatic diseases: systematic literature review and certolizumab pegol in patients with immune-mediated meta-analysis informing a consensus statement. Ann Rheum inﬂammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analy- Dis 2013;72:583–9. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2012;13: ent biological and targeted synthetic disease-modifying 731–44. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;64:1035– atic literature review and meta-analyses from biologic reg- 50. Serious adverse events associated tematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled with using biological agents to treat rheumatic diseases: trials. Meta-analysis of malignancies, serious infec- arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Tumor necrosis factor a drugs in psoriatic disease: a systematic review and metaanalysis of rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and metaanalysis randomized controlled trials. Risks risk of serious infection and malignancy in patients with and beneﬁts of tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors in the early rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized management of psoriatic arthritis: systematic review and controlled trials. Incidence of serious infectious events of belimumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits B lym- with methotrexate treatment: metaanalysis of randomized phocyte stimulator, in patients with systemic lupus erythe- controlled trials. Ann Rheum with rheumatoid arthritis receiving concomitant metho- Dis 2015;74:1311–6. Rituximab pharmacokinetics in patients with rheu- total joint arthroplasty in solid organ transplant recipients: matoid arthritis: B-cell levels do not correlate with clinical a case series. Risk of serious adverse effects of biological and tar- recipients fare after primary total knee arthroplasty? Off-label use of rituximab in systemic zoster: recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immu- lupus erythematosus: a systematic review. The and improve the global outcomes of patients with acute and challenge is how to accurately estimate a patient’s kidney chronic kidney disease. In particular, although glomerular Prescribing in Kidney Disease: Initiative for Improved filtration rate is the metric used to guide dose adjustment, Dosing’. Clinicians must assess patient assessment considerations should be factored into the kidney function and consider how the kidney function- decision-making process? What is the most accurate and associated changes in the disposition of drugs and their active reliable index of ‘kidney function’ for drug dosing? What are or toxic metabolites will impact the drug therapy needs of the determinates of the desired therapeutic end points that individual patients. Indeed, kidney function decreases with age, is the predictive performance of the various methodologies to and older patients constitute the most rapidly expanding calculate the desired dosage regimen? Urinary clearance of inulin, which is the gold acute care medication needs while not upsetting the patient’s standard, is rarely performed except for research purposes delicate therapeutic balance. Modiﬁcations and the nonoptimization of drug therapy may be one of the to this procedure include the use of other exogenous agents contributing factors that could be addressed if more data such as iothalamate, iohexol, and (99 m)Tc/c-diethylenetri- were available and emphasis was focused on its incorporation amine pentaacetic acid, and plasma clearance to replace the into patient care plans. It is not possible or practical to Another limitation of Scr is the variability in Scr assays. For example, creatinine measurements by the various that the body weight is considered; however, this has not been Jaffe methods yield Scr values that are 5–10% higher on validated. Clinicians should use the most accurate method/tool to assess kidney function for the individual patient (i. Studies are needed to determine the best method to individualize drug dosing to body size 2. Before 1998, there were no ofﬁcial guidances 27,31–35 regarding the explicit criteria for characterization of the situations. In order to achieve the result in unforeseen consequences as the metabolites of some desired goal in a timely fashion, a stepwise approach that drugs have signiﬁcant pharmacologic activity. The following parameters may help guide compound are markedly different than those reported in individual therapy. Alternatively, the metabolite may have may be required if a drug has a long half-life and there is a qualitatively dissimilar pharmacologic action; for example, need to rapidly achieve the desired steady-state concentra- normeperidine has central nervous system stimulatory tions. Because of the multiplicity of potential interactions of needed even if one was not routinely recommended for those compounds that are primarily metabolized, the practical with normal renal function. The desired dosage regimen adjustment goals for some agents are drug class speciﬁc. When there is a signiﬁcant interval and maintenance dose when one desires to achieve a relationship between drug concentration and clinical 5,6,58 speciﬁc target serum concentration. In general, attaining similar average steady-state concentrations may be prolonging the dosing interval but maintaining the same appropriate. Measuring drug Most dosage adjustment guidelines have proposed the use of concentrations is one way to optimize therapeutic regimens a ﬁxed dose or interval for patients with broad ranges of and account for changes between and within individuals. Therapeutic drug monitoring requires availability of rapid, Drug distribution is one of the most important, yet the speciﬁc, and reliable assays and known correlations of drug most complicated, physiologic variable to quantify for concentration to therapeutic and adverse outcomes. There is a ﬁne balance addition, hypoalbuminemia may inﬂuence interpretation of between detrimental ﬂuid overload and adequate hydration drug concentrations as the total drug concentration may be to preserve kidney perfusion. Numerous studies in both adult reduced even when the active unbound drug concentration is and pediatric patients have concluded that critically ill not. Unbound drug concentrations are often not clinically patients should early on be managed in a slightly negative 68,73–75 available, and therefore clinicians must empirically consider ﬂuid balance after initial adequate ﬂuid resuscitation.
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