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By E. Hassan. Air Force Institute of Technology.

Used in conjunction Has been associated with congestive heart failure and death in with calcium gluconate to induce the passage of an egg from the chicks buy 40 mg levitra super active fast delivery, ducklings and turkey poults cheap levitra super active 40mg on-line. Contraindicated if the egg is adhered to the wall of the oviduct or if a mechanical blockage is preventing egg passage cheap levitra super active 20mg without a prescription. Furosemide should be considered to have administration or as tablets (250 or 500 mg) or solutions for oral a low therapeutic index in birds. Available as an injectable solution (50 mg/ml) that may be used orally, intranasally, topically or for nebulization. For nebulization, 1 ml of injectable solu- for the treatment of Mycobacterium spp. A transient Fenbendazole should not be used while active feather development polyuria indicative of renal damage is common. Will oxidize if exposed to light and must be stored in death in some avian species, particularly lories. Concentrated solution is made by mixing two ministration of amikacin is safer in birds. Working solution is mixed solution must be used with caution in small birds to prevent fresh daily by mixing one drop of concentrated solution in 250 ml overdosing and nephrotoxicity. The toxic effects of aminogly- in toucans and mynah birds that are prone to hemochromatosis. Can be used to treat gastrointestinal candidiasis cause a fatal hepatitis, vomiting, depression and ataxia. May be effective in Has been associated with anorexia and depression in African Grey some cases of feather picking and self-mutilation in birds. African Grey Parrots and Quaker Para- effective against aspergillosis in Psittaciformes with few side ef- keets may be disoriented or neurotic following administration. Most Administration should be discontinued if anorexia, ataxia or vom- effective therapy for Knemidokoptes. Quaker Parakeets and Umbrella and Moluccan Cocka- topically on affected areas or can be given orally. May also be effective for Oxyspirura, some coccidia, some nema- todes, gapeworms and sternostamatosis. Toxic in bullfinches and goldfinches when used Often combined with piperazine for the treatment of capillaria in topically at 0. Low therapeutic index in Psittaciformes, Anseriformes solution designed for cattle and pig use. Ivermectin diluted in propylene glycol will Found as a fiber source in some formulated diets. May be effective settle out and the diluted product should be thoroughly mixed in controlling glucosuria, hypocalcemia and hypercholesterolemia. The water-soluble preparation designed for Can be administered as a bulk laxative to aid in the passage of use in horses is easier to work with and appears to be safer. Large doses may precipitate out in the crop or However, deaths in finches and budgerigars have been reported upper intestinal tract causing an impaction. The drug or its metabolites should not be allowed to responsive to traditional therapy. Has been suggested treatment of severe candidiasis in which other therapies have been as an immunostimulant in birds, but there is no scientific docu- ineffective. This drug is water-soluble and is easiest to dissolve in mentation that it is effective. Crushed tablets can be mixed with methyl-cellulose by a extreme caution except in cases of documented hypothyroidism. This drug impairs synthesis of ergosterol, which is polydipsia, polyuria, vomiting, weight loss, convulsion and death) a critical component of the fungal cell membrane. This be administered orally if gastrointestinal stasis or vomiting are drug has poor activity against most gram-negative bacteria but absent. In cases of mild dehydration (5%), oral administration may does have good activity for many gram-positive organisms. Absorption may be enhanced by mixing with psyllium effective in treating chronic respiratory infections caused by my- and sugar. Patients should be monitored for requirement for birds is considered to be 50 ml/kg/day. Multi-dose application may be effective Has been shown to cause cessation of ovarian activity for up to 14 in establishing flora that can act to prevent pathogenic gram- days in cockatiels. May be used in cases of egg-related peritonitis to negative bacteria from colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Reduces levels of testosterone to castration Should be considered as adjunct therapy in any bird that has levels. In Acts as an osmotic retardant to the absorption of potential toxins humans, drug administration is discontinued if a patient has a from the gastrointestinal tract. May be effective Available as an injectable solution (20 mg/ml or 180 mg/ml) for as an appetite stimulant in some birds. Functions as an osmotic diuretic and may establishing a gastrointestinal environment that favors the be effective in reducing intraocular and intracranial pressure. Can be used daily for weeks if Used primarily to reduce brain swelling following head trauma. Experimental studies in tion caused by dead nematodes have been reported at all doses in chickens suggest that a dose of 1. Commonly mixed in ever, there is no work to confirm a positive immunostimulatory the food of geese and pheasants. This drug is not recommended for use in administration or as an injectable suspension (100 mg/ml, Depo- debilitated patients. Intramuscular injection therapeutic dose may cause vomiting, neurologic problems and may cause muscle necrosis. Inhibits secretion of pituitary gonadotropin and ataxia, depression, regurgitation and mydriasis in some cockatoos, prevents follicular development and ovulation. Clinical signs are most severe when dose may be effective in suppressing ovulation for six months. Can be mixed with drinking to be very sensitive and require a reduced dose (see Chapter 29). Has been associated with birth defects when adminis- should be slowly weaned off the drug by a gradual reduction in tered to pregnant mammals. Not absorbed from the gastrointestinal mammals, stimulates gastrointestinal motility without increasing tract. Drug preparation used mainly for sterilizing the gut in gastric, biliary or pancreatic secretions. Some preparations may also contain other antibiotics, steroids, Has been associated with hyperactivity in some birds. The preparations containing trypsin be used when gastrointestinal stasis is caused be intraluminal or and chymotrypsin are particularly useful for debriding and provid- extraluminal masses that are preventing the movement of ing antimicrobial activity to necrotic areas of skin. Causes the expulsion of the parasite, Available as tablets (250 or 500 mg) for oral administration or as which can be a diagnostic aid in difficult-to-detect infections. Used ground tablets are not soluble in water and must be added to a for treatment of giardia, hexamita and for anaerobic bacterial gruel.

In chemical studies cheap generic levitra super active canada, active principles were isolated from powdered sample of Polygonum tomentosum Willd purchase discount levitra super active line. According to the chemical test and spectroscopic data generic levitra super active 20 mg online, three isolated compounds were assumed lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Nutritional values were conducted from the powdered sample of Polygonum tomentosum Willd. In antimicrobial activity, the various solvent extracts from the powdered sample of the whole plant were tested on six pathogenic microorganisms by using agar-well diffusion method. The acetone extract showed more active against on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumalis. The isolated compound B (stigmasterol) showed the inhibition against on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The acute toxicity of 70% ethanolic extract and aqueous extract of Polygonum tomentosum Willd. It was observed that both extracts were free from acute toxic or harmful effects during observation period of 2-weeks even with maximum permissible dose of (5000mg/kg). The result indicated that ethanolic extract from the whole plant of Polygonum tomentosum Willd. Phytochemical investigation on four selected legume cultivars and the extraction of lecithin from Glycine Max (Linn. Their utilization was noted from the available literature and their uses were also obtained from the people living in this district. The macroscopical characters of matured ripe seeds of the above mentioned four selected legume cultivars were examined in details in order to ascertain their identification. For chemical studies, the preliminary phytochemical investigation, physicochemical characterization and elemental analysis of four selected legume cultivars were performed from the powdered sample of the seeds. In the pharmacology studies, the seeds of 4 selected legume cultivars were extracted using 95% ethanol and petroleum-ether (60ºC-80ºC). Their extractions were tested for antimicrobial activities in vitro with six test organisms. According to the survey of literature, the cyanogenic glycosides were found in the seeds of Phaseolus lunatus L. So, the purpose of this research is to investigate the acute toxicity of ethanolic extracts of butter bean seeds included in albino mice. Besides this, experiments on the growth rate of animal model by dosing the aqueous suspension of Cicer arietinum L. The growth rate of animal model namely weight, height, and width had increased owing to the high protein content of chickpea. Hence, this scientific research has helped in revealing the effectiveness and usefulness of leguminous seeds not only for consumption but also for pharmaceutical uses. Phytochemical investigations of five selected species of Zingiber and pharmacognostic studies on Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The five species of Zingiber were collected from Pyin Oo Lwin and surrounding areas of Yangon during the flowering period (July to November, 2004-2006). According to the morphological characters present in the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plants, these plants have been identified by using available literature. So, an attempt was made to investigate its medicinal properties in the present research. The microscopical characters of root, rhizome and dried rhizome powder were examined to ascertain its identification. Starch and oleoresin were abundantly found and closed collateral type vascular bundle scattered in T. The dried rhizome powder of 5 species was tested to determine the phytochemical characters and physicochemical properties. Terpene, resin and starch were present dominantly and more soluble in water and chloroform. Then the active essential oils present in rhizome were extracted by water distillation method. The odour, taste and yield of essential oil were studied as preliminary examination. Physical measurements such as specific gravity, optical rotation and refractive index were conducted for identification and assessment of purity. The different solvent extracts of rhizome, essential oil and isolated compounds were tested against different microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that the essential oil and isolated compounds showed more significant antimicrobial activity than different solvent extracts. Phytochemical investigations on 4 selected species of Musaceae and pharmacognostic studies on Musa paradisiaca L. The morphology and taxonomy of the vegetative and reproductive parts of four species of Musaceae have been studied, identified and also compared, by using available literature from Botany Department of Yangon University. The collected plant samples were washed and dried at room temperature for about one week and then crushed and powdered by using grinding mill and stored in air tight bottle for future use. The powdered leaf sample of the four species of Musaceae was tested for its phytochemical and physico-chemical properties. It was found that tannin, steroid and resin were present dominantly and it was more soluble in ethanol. In addition, the extraction and isolation of compounds A (β-sitosterol), B (stigmasterol) and C (9, 19 tetracycline triterpene) from leaf powder were performed by using column chromatography method. Antimicrobial activity of the two extracts such as chloroform and 50% ethanol extract; 50% ethanol extract from leaves showed effective antibacterial activities on all tested microorganism except Bacillus pumalis and four isolated compounds, namely β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 9-19 tetracyclic triterpene and gallic acid were investigated against six different microorganism by employing agar well diffusion method. The acute toxicity studies on both aqueous and 50% ethanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca L. The contractile spasmogenic effect of both aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Musa paradisisca L. The observed effects of both extracts were similar to that of acetylcholine-like activity. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Cassia fistula Linn. The plants belonging to this family are widely distributed throughout the tropical countries. It is recognized because of its beautiful flowers, laxative activity and cures certain skin infections such as ringworm. The plant parts were pressed for Herbarium sheet and air dried and powdered for further use. The plant parts were investigated for botanical identification, morphological description and histological examinations. Qualitative analysis or phytochemical screening and quantitative analysis of the leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The dried leaves sample was extracted with sodium bicarbonate, concentrated hydrochloric acid to obtain free anthraquinones.

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Physical therapy should evolve to terized by maximum callus formation occurs (Table include a variety of regimented exercises designed to 42 order levitra super active with a visa. In birds where fractures were repaired with maintain or increase cardiovascular endurance order generic levitra super active line, to bone plates (maximum stabilization) cheap levitra super active 40mg online, callus forma- maintain or increase range of motion of joints and to tion was found to be minimal, suggesting that pri- maintain or increase muscular flexibility tone and mary bone healing had occurred (Figure 42. With should be left at the fracture site to provide additional support for callus formation (courtesy of Laurel Degernes). However, these callus formation is minimal if the bones are rigidly granulomatous osteomyelitis lesions can serve as a fixed. The blood supply to the bones is believed to nidus for infection that can cause a fatal septicemia arise from periosteal (originating from soft tissues if a bird becomes immunosuppressed. It bridement and flushing should be used to remove has been suggested, but not confirmed, that pneu- 31 necrotic tissue and debris from all open fractures to matic bones heal slower than medullary bones. Clinical stability of a fracture (two to three weeks) Samples for culture and sensitivity should be col- may precede radiographic evidence that the bone is 7,31,45 lected from the fracture site at the time of surgery. The healing of unsta- The use of intraoperative, broad-spectrum antibiot- bilized humeral fractures in pigeons was charac- ics with good tissue penetration (trimethoprim-sulfa, terized by increased radiolucency in the medullary cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines) canal and endosteal and periosteal calluses that were should be considered in these cases. Poorly aligned fractures changed little between four and twelve Placement of stabilizing hardware at or near an open weeks,31 while properly stabilized bones remodeled fracture site should be avoided to decrease the likeli- rapidly during that time period. External fixators are recommended in these Minor forces that cause undetectable levels of move- cases. It has been suggested that fractures in pneu- ment can damage the growth of small capillary beds matic bones would be predisposed to osteomyelitis and impede fracture stabilization. Malunions occur when the ends of frac- infected fragments should be left in place to provide tured bones heal but not to each other. Callus formation was evident radiographically at 21 days post-im- plantation and the fracture was healed by 80 days post-implanta- tion. The diaphysis, or shaft, is that portion of a long bone between the ends (Figure 42. Viable – Sufficient blood supply The epiphysis is the end of a long bone and is formed Hypertrophic Abundant callus and blood vessels from a secondary center of ossification. The physis, or Fractures filled with fibrocartilage growth plate, is that segment of tubular bone con- Caused by inadequate fixation or premature loading cerned with growth. It is divided into four distinct Oligotrophic 11 No evidence of callus zones: Biologically, fracture can heal Zone of resting cartilage: Small chondrocytes Hypervascularized fragments Rounded, decalcified fragment ends are dispersed in an irregular pattern. Nonviable – Insufficient blood supply Zone of cell proliferation: Chondrocytes are somewhat larger and tend to form columns; this is the area of chondrocyte proliferation and mitotic In mammals, most long bones have one or more figures are usually present. Their Zone of cell maturation: Cells are larger still formation is similar to endochondral ossification and arranged in columns. As the cells enlarge and with proliferation occurring in all directions until a mature, they accumulate glycogen and begin pro- predetermined size is reached. The ends of the and osteoblastic activity takes place on the surface bones grow rapidly and establish secondary centers of the partitions. The growth in length trabeculae develop, which give a jagged appear- takes place at the epiphyseal layer, and when growth ance to this zone on histologic and radiographic ceases, the layer of cartilage ossifies. The basic progression of ossification in long bones has been described in chickens (Figure 42. In the femur of a 9-day-old embryo, a sheath of bone has begun to form beneath the perichondrium of the original hya- line cartilage. At 13 days, the central diaphyseal cartilage has been re- placed by bone, and the marrow cav- ity has formed. In the day-old chick, the diaphysis has elongated by replacement of the cartilage model at the metaphysis. There is also a cartilage model analo- gous for the mammalian epiphyseal center of ossification (Figure 42. Instead, it persists as a cavity 6) cortex and 7) physis (modified with permission from Fowler13). Elongation of the cartilage model is accomplished by interstitial growth of chondrocytes. Individual chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy allowing final endochondral ossifica- tion of the epiphyseal cartilage. At each end of the bone, a dense terminal bone plate is covered by an articular hyaline cartilage. This is typical of the long 155-day-old chick), the epiphyseal cartilage undergoes endochondral ossification. The epiphyseal center of ossifi- lage 2) epiphyseal cartilage 3) physis 4) bone spicules 5) osteoid spicules 6) cortex, and folding fracture (modified with permission cation of the proximal end of the tibiotarsus becomes 13 from Fowler ) visible radiographically at 35 days in the chicken. The fibular and tibial tarsal bones, which make up the hock of mature mammals, fuse in avian embryos of the relative structural weakness of the unmineral- to the tibial cartilaginous model and appear as two ized growth zone. Like- occurs subperiosteally, resulting in knobby growth wise, the epiphyseal center at the proximal end of the centers. The radiographic changes are characterized tarsometatarsus corresponds to the distal row of tar- by rickets, increased width of the physis, increased sal bones in mammals. The carpals, metacarpals and trabeculation in the metaphysis, lipping of the meta- physis and swollen distal extremities. The femur and wing bones lack epiphyseal centers of Metabolic Bone Disease ossification. However, histologically, the same pat- tern of abnormal development takes place in the Metabolic bone disease in the tibiotarsus and tar- growth zone of a femur or wing bone in a bird with sometatarsus (bones with epiphyseal centers of ossi- metabolic bone disease. The epiphyseal cartilage in fication) appears similar to that described in mam- birds corresponds to the epiphyseal ossification cen- mals. Without cal- genesis (production of new bone), osteoinduction (re- cification, the chondrocytes continue to live, causing cruitment of mesenchymal cells that differentiate thickening of the whole growth zone (Figure 42. Autogenous medullary bone (collected from the tibio- tarsus), corticocancellous bone (collected from the sternum or ribs) and cortical bone (devitalized frag- ments from the fracture site) have been shown to augment bone healing in birds. There was less callus formation in the fractures sup- ported by a graft but these birds also had a signifi- cantly higher occurrence of dehiscence, sequestra- tion and foreign body reactions than birds with no grafts. External Coaptation: Bandages and Splints Fracture Repair Techniques External coaptation is an inexpensive and rapid method of providing increased comfort to a patient (decreased movement of bone ends) and minimal It is best to have a command of a variety of fracture stabilization of a fracture. Bandages and splints fixation techniques and to be ready with alternative should be made of the lightest weight materials with plans at the time of surgery (see Table 42. Reas- the minimal amount of padding needed to compen- sessment of the injury intraoperatively may necessi- sate for swelling of damaged soft tissue. Each avian coaptation is acceptable as a primary stabilization fracture is unique and may require a variety of ma- technique only when a limited post-fracture range of neuvers, techniques and instruments to achieve op- motion is satisfactory, a patient is too small to facili- timal reduction and immobilization. Non-displaced fractures of the pel- tendon contraction) is common in fractures repaired vic girdle, coracoid, clavicle and scapula will gener- by external coaptation (Figure 42.

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This study indicates that both extracts can be used as an effective agent against fever which was comparable to that of a standard paracetamol cheap 20 mg levitra super active fast delivery. It was collected from Ka-mar-aung creek in Dalla Township and identified by the available literatures order levitra super active 40 mg with visa. In morphological characters purchase levitra super active master card, the plants are aromatic and perennial shrubs, the stems are profusely branched. The microscopial characters of the leaves and roots were investigated for their identification and standardization of drugs. Unicellular and multicellular head of glandular trichomes and anomocytic stomata were present. The powdered leaves were tested by the determination of phytochemical and physicochemical properties. In phytochemical investigation, glycoside, phenolic compound, terpenoid, steroid and tannin were present. According to the physicochemical results, the leaves were found more soluble in polar solvent. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds apigenin and scutellarein and extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water were investigated against six microorganisms by employing agar well diffusion method. In this result, ethyl acetate extract was more significant and isolated compound apigenin and scutellarein exhibited against six microorganisms especially most effective activity on Staphylococcus aureus. The mice were no lethality and healthy during the observation period of two weeks with maximum dose of 16g/kg body weight. Accordingly, the antipyretic activity of 70% ehtanolic extract from the leaves of C. It is known as Posa in Myanmar and its widely cultivated for their leaves used in sericulture. The specimens of this plant were collected from Pyin-Oo-Lwin Township in Mandalay Division. The morphological characters of the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plant had been identified in the department of Botany, University of Yangon. In transverse section of lamina, the upper epidermal cells were bulliform or motor-shaped, in which cystoliths of calcium carbonate crystals were present. Then, they were crushed to get powdered and stored in an an air tight container for microscopial, chemical and pharmacological studies. Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical properties of the leaves were analysed. The alkaloid was riched in leaves but saponins, terpenoids and cyanogenic glycosides were absent. Firstly, leaves were defatted with petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extraction method and meal cake was analysed for the presence of amino acids composition. Amino acids present in the hydrolysate of leaves were detected by one dimensional paper and thin layer chromatography comparing with 12 standard amino acids and the standard amino acid mixture. According to the result, 9 amino acids such as lysine, aspartic acid, serine, glycine, glutamic acid, threonine, alanine, methionine and leucine were present. Antimicrobial activity of the 70% ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves were tested against thirty microorganisms by using paper disc diffusion method and was found the aqueous extract was more effective than ethanolic extract. After oral administration of ethanolic extract (3g/kg) body weight, a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 1hr, 2hr and 3 hr were observed when compared with that of that of a control group. After administration of aqueous extract (3g/kg) body weight, it caused a significant inhibition of blood glucose level at 1hr, 2hr, 3hr and 4hr which were almost the same with that of glibenclamide administration. The percentage inhibition of blood glucose level of ethanolic extract was shown to be significantly increased only at 2hr after administration of drugs when compared with that of glibenclamide. Aqueous extract could significantly reduced glucose level when compared with that of ethanolic extract. So, this phytochemical investigation was conducted to discover some new compounds from this plant. The morphological and histological characters of this plant have been studied and identified by using available literatures from Botany Department of Yangon University. Fruits colours are white in young stage, red in mature and purplish-black when ripe. The distinct histological characters of roots were xylem exarch and polyarch in primary root, oil cells and starch grains were present in phelloderm of secondary root. The cells of upper and lower surfaces of lamina were wavy and anomocytic types of stomata were present on the lower surface. Calcium oxalate crystals were present in mesophyll tissues of lamina and parenchymatous cells of midrib and petiole. Angular collenchyma and parenchymatous cells were present in mesocap of the fruits. The testa of seeds was composed of brachy sclereids and tegmen was parenchymatous cells. The qualitative analyses showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoid, glycoside, phenolic compound, saponin, starch, terpenoid, steroid, reducing sugar and tannins. Nutritioinal analyses of the powdered root was conducted and found that carbohydrate, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin C, fat and fibre were present. Various solvent extracts and compounds A and B were tested against six microorganisms for their antimicrobial activity by using agar well diffusion method. It was found that acetone, methanol and ethanol extracts were more effective than compounds A and B. But the isolated compounds were effective than petroleum- ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water extracts. The acute toxicity of aqueous extract and 70% ethanolic extract from roots of Carissa carandas L. It was observed that aqueous and ethanolic were free from acute toxicity or harmful effect during observation period of 14-days even with maximum permissible dose of 24g/kg. In anthelmintic activity, aqueous extracts was found to be more effective than ethanolic extracts. In the former method, ethanolic extract showed the antioxidant activity up to dry matter amount 25µg (Conc. But the latter showed that the ethanolic extract from the roots of this plant was found to be significant as the ascorbic acid. According to the morphological characters present in the vegetative and reproductive parts of the plants, it has been identified by using available literature. The microscopical characters of fresh leaves, culms, roots and the dried powder of the whole plant were examined to ascertain its identification. The bulliform or motor cells and two types of vascular bundles are observed in tranverse section of lamina. The vascular bundles are scattered, except in the center of the culm in tranverse section. The whole plant powder of this plant was tested to determine the preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical properties. Tanins and cyanogenic glycosides were found to be absent and carbohydrate, starch, α-amino acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, glycosides and reducing sugar were present.

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