By Q. Asaru. Saint Xavier University.
Fistulography purchase lady era 100 mg free shipping, which was popularized in the 1970s and as an indentation above the dentate line in the anorectal ring 1980s but has fallen out of favor with advent of other or lower rectal wall cheap lady era 100mg with visa. There were publications pro and con often at the dentate line corresponding to Goodsall’s rule order lady era 100 mg visa, of ﬁstulography but currently this procedure is rarely uti- unless the patient has had previous surgery or the ﬁstula is lized [4 ]. Endoanal ultrasonography without or with injection of sharp foreign body as mentioned above. Computerized tomography of pelvis and perineum with from the primary opening, which conﬁrms the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is quite helpful in diagnos- however may judiciously proceed to use a draining seton ing ﬁstula and assessing the closure of the ﬁstula after instead of deﬁnite surgical procedure if the ﬁstula is consid- seemingly successful procedures, especially in Crohn’s ered to be too complex or undrained pus is encountered dur- disease. Identiﬁcation of primary and secondary openings and the lateral traction using a Kocher clamp is often helpful to ﬁstula tract itself which is described above. If the ﬁstula tract is very thin, lacrimal probes may be classiﬁcation and the thickness of sphincter muscle used instead of the regular ﬁstula probes. This is much harder than simple identiﬁcation of very narrow, one may have difﬁculty delineating it even with the tract because it takes experience and judgment to decide lacrimal probes. In such cases slow injection of hydrogen which ﬁstula is easily amenable to ﬁstulotomy and which peroxide alone or with the addition of 1–2 drops of methy- requires sphincter-sparing procedure. As Phillip suggests, lene blue might result in bubbling of the injected material it is more important to know how much sphincter will be through the primary opening. A larger amount of methylene left behind rather how much will be divided during ﬁstu- blue tends to stain the granulation tissue in dark blue color lotomy (see Chap. Reducing this to its simple form, it is 5 Clinical Assessment of Anal Fistulas 29 important for the surgeon to be sure whether the ﬁstula is It is for this reason and medical/legal implications of high or low and if the surgeon is inexperienced, unsure, or treatment-related fecal incontinence that the involve- does not treat anal ﬁstulas on regular basis, it is better to ment of a colon and rectal surgical specialist in the treat- insert a loose marking seton (braided suture or vessel loop) ment of anal fistula is not only desirable, but most often in the tract and refer the patient to a specialist . Role of seton in ﬁstulot- Although ﬁstula in ano is not a life-threatening disease, it is omy of the anus. Cologne , Juan Antonio Villanueva-Herrero , Enrique Montaño-Torres , and Adrian E. Ortega David Henry Goodsall is credited with the ﬁrst “topo- Introduction graphical” description of anal ﬁstula. Goodsall’s Fistula disease is a frequent consequence of anorectal rule states that ﬁstula having an external oriﬁces situated abscess. Up to 50 % of patients with an anorectal abscess behind (posterior) to a transverse line drawn through the cen- progress to develop a chronic ﬁstula. Cryptoglandular or ter of the anus usually have their internal oriﬁce in the poste- idiopathic origin is the most frequent cause. In a series examining dates back to Hippocrates—the ﬁrst to describe the use of a the accuracy of this dictum in 216 patients with ﬁstulas, it seton . Hundreds of remedies have been proscribed to appears to be more accurate for posterior ﬁstulas. The difﬁculty in ﬁnding a univer- ﬁstulas less often follow this straight course described, with sally successful treatment speaks to the pleomorphic nature an average of 49 % following the proposed path . Clinical evaluation of ﬁstulas becomes Goodsall’s rule serves as an imperfect guide to identify the critical to determining the appropriate intervention. His initial classiﬁcation scheme was slightly more elaborate, but included the follow- ing four basic ﬁstula types (with percentages based on his Classiﬁcation preliminary series of 400 patients): intersphincteric (45 %), transphincteric (29 %), suprasphincteric (20 %) and Several classiﬁcation schemes have been developed to better extrasphincteric (5 %). They slightly based on larger series to represent the scope of clinical portend implications important both in terms of deﬁning disease as follows: intersphincteric (70 %), transphincteric anatomy and the likelihood of therapeutic success. These involve both the internal and external sphincters and pass into the ischioanal fossa. The length of the ﬁstula is determined by the location of the previous incision and drainage or site of spontaneous decompression. These curvi- linear ﬁstula tracts originate at the level of the dentate line but traverse cephalad above the puborectalis before turning downward through the ischioanal fossa to reach the peri- anal skin. Extrasphincteric ﬁstulas are usually caused by overzeal- ous probing and creation of false ﬁstula tracts. Posterior secondaries passes through the levators rendering them amongst the most follow a curvilinear trajectory into a posterior midline primary. On the right is an uncom- (b) low transphincteric; (c) supralevator; (d) two variations of mon variant of cryptglandular origin extrasphincteric ﬁstula. On the left is a variant seen in iatrogenic recurrent 6 Clinical Assessment and Imaging Modalities of Fistula in Ano 33 the concept “complex ﬁstula” is a common term in the In the absence of any complicating factors, most colorectal surgical vernacular, albeit not a part of Park’s classiﬁcation. The term further may be used to describe those that erative imaging has been debated. It remains unclear that this include multiple tracks, anterior location in females, recur- adds any additional information to the skilled practitioner. It is termed complex because the treat- allowing the practitioner to proceed with an appropriate ment requires a more complicated approach and cannot be deﬁnitive procedure at the ﬁrst operation [13, 14]. The “complex ﬁstula” has been argue that even with complex ﬁstula tracts, deﬁnitive a catalyst of much innovation, although no single approach has management at the ﬁrst procedure is not always possible. The primary goal should be control of anorectal sepsis, with Infections tracking above the levator muscles may ultimately deﬁnitive procedure reserved for a time when there is form suprasphincteric or extrasphincteric ﬁstula. The former decreased infection and inﬂammation of surrounding tissues course between the sphincter muscles; the latter course lateral . Although imaging can serve to correctly identify the to the external sphincter muscle. Abdominal pelvic infections course of the ﬁstula tract in the majority of patients, it may disseminate into the retrorectal and supralevator spaces remains unclear whether the time and expense to perform as well as the ischioanal fossae via Alcock’s canals acutely. They are important to recog- niques are reserved for those whose anatomy is unclear at the nize, because they are often mismanaged due to a failure to time of surgery. A review of 101 patients showed that pri- identify the underlying source—infection in one of the post- mary crypt identiﬁcation was possible 93 % of the time with anal or posterior space(s): superﬁcial, deep, supralevator, surgery alone. Palpation of the intersphincteric groove with an index ﬁnger often reveals palpable induration or a divot in the area Anal ﬁstula arising in the setting of speciﬁc diseases should of the originating crypt. Superﬁcial ﬁstula tracts can also be be investigated according to the clinical context in which they palpable from their external opening into the anal canal. The classic example is chronic inﬂammatory bowel Some authors employ a crochet-type hooked probe to iden- disease—particularly Crohn’s. Others apply a clamp lateral to the mentation of the state of the rectal mucosa assessed by endo- external opening in order “to straighten” the tract. Palpation of the intersphincteric groove and the tissues should be assigned to these patients. All procedures for the surrounding the external opening(s) surgical correction of anal ﬁstula have the potential of altering 3. Injection of the external opening(s) with hydrogen perox- nence are important to document preoperatively. This case underscores the peroxide emanates from two adjacent cypts via radial trajectories. Therefore, passage of the probe as an initial maneuver deeper areas of infection and suggest an origin (such as a may be misleading as well as potentially iatrogenic if a false supralevator, pure intersphincteric, extrasphincteric, or horse- opening is created.
The frst needle purchase lady era 100 mg on-line, with suture should be pulled inferiorly when the patient is asked to force- attached cheap lady era 100 mg amex, is passed from the tail of the brow order genuine lady era online, intrad- fully close the eyes, but should not rise when the patient is asked ermally, to exit at medial puncture. This avoids inadvertently denervating central portion of the suture will come to lie in the fbers of frontalis, which act to elevate the brow. One or more injections can be made in the orbicularis 2 weeks before a brow dermis of the brow. Placement below the dermis in lift to alleviate the depressor action of this muscle the subcutaneous tissue has a propensity to cut 406 P. Stab incisions dle then re-enters the medial puncture and passes using a #11 blade are made at the marked points. The subcutaneously along the marked path to exit from curved needle is passed from the upper medial inci- the incision in the scalp. The second needle passes sion to the lower medial incision, under the superf- from the tail of the brow, subcutaneously to exit the cial temporal fascia but above the deep temporal incision in the scalp. To fnd this plane, lift a tuft of hair above the the superfcial tissues above the lateral brow to avoid path of the needle and pass the needle deeply. The needles should be a thick layer of tissue covering the needle are cut from the sutures so that two barbed suture following passage, but it should not be so deep that ends exit from the scalp incisions. However, anchor- passed through the eye of the needle and the needle is age of the proximal cut ends of the suture under the withdrawn. Next, the needle is passed in the superf- galea further secures the lift and prevents slippage. A cial subcutaneous plane from the lower lateral inci- curved suture-passing needle is passed deep to the sion to the lower medial incision and the suture end is galea from one incision to the other and the suture threaded through the needle’s eye and brought to the ends are brought through the same incision and tied. Finally the needle is passed into the upper medial incision, taking a bite of periosteum and deep Suture lifting in the temporal area provides a subtle temporal fascia along the superior temporal fusion but important rejuvenation in the upper face by lifting line, and exits from the upper lateral incision. The the tail of the eyebrow, the lateral canthus, and the suture is brought from this incision to the upper upper cheek (Fig. In the periorbital area, ele- medial one so that both ends exit from the same inci- vation of soft tissues by 2–3 mm provides noticeable sion. The frst is along a line drawn perpen- the hairline, and elevate the tail of the brow and upper dicular to the tail of the eyebrow, just behind the tem- face. A second point is made just behind the inverted or tethered down, are released using the tip hairline 4–5 cm inferior to the frst point. The incisions heal quickly by second- points are made above the frst points in line with the ary intention. One of these points should be along is usual along the hairline but this contracts and the superior temporal crest line where the deep tem- disappears in 1–2 weeks. After skin preparation and sterile draping, local anes- thesia using lidocaine 1–2% with 1:200,000 adrena- 34. The inferior points mark the exit sites for 34 Suture Lifting Techniques 407 a c Fig. One of the superior incisions (b) is made along the the deep temporal fascia, and the needle receives the suture end superior temporal crest line (red dots). The suture is cut and buried by through the eye of the needle and the suture is brought back applying traction to the puncture site with the tip of an artery from point A to B. Some physicians pass the needle below the superfcial temporal fascia frst, and then redirect the needle to come superfcially into the subcutaneous plane at the level of the temporal hairline. However, it is easier to start the needle passage in the correct plane above the superfcial temporal fascia under direct vision at the temporal incision and continue into the malar fat pad in the same plane. As the needle is passed along its course, the nondominant hand gently grasps the tissues over the needle as it passes through the tem- ple and then malar fat pad. A blunt trocar, provided by the suture company, can be used to facilitate atraumatic passage of the needle through the tissues before emerg- ing from the skin. If the suture passes too superfcially it may catch the dermis and lead to irregularities. At this point, one the points should not be made below a line drawn from or more cones can be cut from the suture as outlined the lobule of the ear to the modiolus. Sutures passing above, making sure not to pull through any cones that below this line could disrupt with movement of the are to remain on the suture. If areas are infltrated with 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 there are skin irregularities or dimples along the length epinephrine. A 3 cm incision is made in the temporal of the suture, these can usually be ironed out by gentle area and diathermy is used for hemostasis. The super- massaging of the overlying skin from proximal to dis- fcial temporal fascia is exposed, grasped with an artery tally as the proximal end of the suture is held frmly in forceps, and opened to expose the white shiny deep the other hand. The suture is not tied until all of the frst Silhouette suture is measured externally over the other Silhouette sutures have been placed. Usually the cheek to determine how many cones are needed to four sutures are placed in the midface to lift the malar run the length of the malar area. Once all of the sutures are in place, left on the suture, some of the proximal ones may be the half-circle needles are cut from the proximal ends visible under the thin skin of the temple area, or they and the suture ends are gently lifted. M inimal tension may catch on the superfcial temporal fascia when the is required to lift the soft tissues and improve the con- suture is retracted. Each suture is tied to its neighboring cones from the distal end of the suture after they exit at suture over the mesh and the incision is closed in two the inferior points. This suture lift rejuvenates by lifting the jowls used, most or all of them can be left on the suture. Although the lift alone softens the nasolabial plane above the superfcial temporal fascia toward the folds and oral commissures, combining the suture lift lower exit points. If the needle penetrates the superf- with fllers in these areas provides synergy and cial temporal fascia, the facial nerve is at risk of injury improves the results further (Fig. A number of cones (usually two) can be cut from the using a 4-0 nonabsorbable suture. The suture is then cut distal to the suture needle will pass is identifed by grasping the superf- one of the knots. Each pair of neighboring suture the Silhouette suture is placed over the face to measure how ends are gently retracted to lift the malar fat pad and tied to one many cones will span the malar fat pad and midface without another, suspending the tissues of the midface. This determines how many cones, closed in two layers 34 Suture Lifting Techniques 411 d e f g h i Fig. This is particularly effective when soft tis- sue augmentation with injectable fllers is performed in the midface at the same time (Fig. The hairline and one just below the zygomatic arch in suture end is passed through the eye of the needle front of the lobule of the ear. Between the upper two and the needle is withdrawn to the upper anterior points, the temporalis muscle can be felt when the incision. Lidocaine with epinephrine suture end from the lower incision to the upper is infltrated below the temporalis muscle above the lateral incision, except that the suture passage is ear and in the subcutaneous plane between all three slightly more anterior, creating a fgure-of-eight points. To avoid dimpling after the suture passes deeply from the upper lateral incision under has been placed, the tip of an artery forceps is the temporalis muscle and fascia and exits the ante- inserted into the incision below the zygomatic arch rior incision. In the correct position deep to the mus- and passed through the entirety of the dermis. A cle, any movement of the needle should rock the curved needle is passed subcutaneously from the patient’s head.
Take a standard focused surgical history (presenting complaint purchase 100mg lady era, history presenting complaint best order for lady era, past medical history buy lady era overnight delivery, drug history and allergies, social history, family history, systemic enquiry), but in particular enquire about the following: Duration Time course and progression Level of food ‘sticking’ – Back throat, thyroid cartilage, suprasternal notch, retrosternal Difficulty with solids, liquids or both Problems swallowing own saliva (absolute dysphagia) Intermittent or continuous. The former implies a neurological problem or achalasia Odynophagia (painful swallowing) Referred otalgia (a fairly specific symptom of malignancy) Dysphonia Risk factors – Smoking and alcohol Weight loss Regurgitation, coughing at night, halitosis, waterbrash, indigestion, heartburn, acid reflux, chest infections Neurological symptoms (e. After you have taken the history, you will be asked to present it to one of the examiners as though she or he were the consultant. Best wishes Yours sincerely Dr H Brown Take a standard focused surgical history (presenting complaint, history presenting complaint, past medical history, drug history and allergies, social history, family history, systemic enquiry), but in particular enquire about the following: Age Site of lump Single or multiple Onset, duration and developmental time course (congenital vs. On entering the room: Introduce yourself to the patient (permission) Obtain consent Obtain adequate exposure (position) Check if the patient has any pain (pain) Wash hands Inspection After determining the number of lumps, apply the rule of S’s: 1. Site (anatomical triangle neck or level in the neck) the borders of the anterior triangle are the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ramus of the mandible and the midline. The borders of the posterior triangle are the posterior border of sternocleidomastoid, the middle one-third of the clavicle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle. An alternative approach is to state which level of the neck the lump is situated in, according to the Memorial Sloan–Kettering classification (Figure 6. Skin overlying the lump – Skin changes, skin colour, scars (taking care not to miss any faint tracheostomy or thyroidectomy scars), evidence of previous radiotherapy 6. Tenderness – Before touching the lump, check with the patient first whether it is tender 2. Try to ascertain which layer the lump is in To determine its relationship to the skin, ask if you can pinch the skin overlying the lump or if you can move the skin over it. Ask yourself is the lump more or less mobile with the muscle contracted (in two planes)? Insider’s Tip As a general rule, if the lump Retains mobility and is more prominent when underlying muscle is contracted = Lump is superficial to muscle. Is more prominent but less mobile when underlying muscle is contracted = Lump is attached to fascia or superficial surface of muscle. Is less mobile and less prominent when underlying muscle is contracted = Lump is within muscle. Is less mobile and less prominent when underlying muscle is contracted = Lump is deep to muscle. In such cases, although the lump arises in, or deep, to the muscle, it appears more prominent when the muscle is contracted (e. Extra tests (if indicated): Pulsatility, compressibility, thrill, transillumination, expansility, cough impulse, reducibility. Palpate the normal structures of the neck – the hyoid bone, thyroid prominence of laryngeal cartilage, laryngeal cartilage, cricoid cartilage and trachea. Gently displace the larynx from side to side and feel for the normal laryngeal crepitus as the laryngeal cartilaginous framework is moved over the prevertebral muscle and fascia (this is lost in postcricoid tumours and in retropharyngeal abscesses; Trotter’s sign). Note: If the case is cervical lymphadenopathy, do not forget to check the drainage sites (Figure 6. In addition, offer to check other sites for lymphadenopathy (axilla, epitrochlear and inguinal regions, spleen, liver etc. Pain Dysphagia Stridor/dyspnoea Hoarseness Cosmesis Questions about thyroid status: Are you taking any medications? Palpation Look in the hands for: Fine tremor (place a piece of paper on the patient’s outstretched arms, palms facing down and the fingers extended and separated) Thyroid acropachy (a form of nail clubbing) Onycholysis (separation of the nail from the nail bed) Palmar erythema Warm, moist, sweaty palms Pulse (tachycardia, atrial fibrillation) Vitiligo Look at the eyes for: Lid retraction (upper lid higher than normal, lower lid in correct position) (Figure 6. Lid lag – Gently restrain the patient’s head to prevent movement and ask the patient to follow your finger with their eyes as you lower it slowly from above. Lid lag occurs when the upper lid does not keep pace with the eyeball and occurs because of spasm of the smooth muscle in the upper eyelid secondary to increased sympathetic tone in thyrotoxicosis. Proptosis/exophthalmos (look from in front, the side and from above; the sclera is visible below or all around the iris). Look in the mouth for a lingual thyroid Examine the thyroid gland itself Examine the legs Check reflexes and look for evidence of pretibial myxoedema Ask the patient to stand up with their arms across their chest Look for proximal myopathy which can occur in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism Thank the patient and wash hands. Ask the patient to undo their top buttons to expose the upper chest so that you do not miss a midline sternotomy scar (from retrosternal goitre surgery) or distended/engorged veins on the chest wall (superior vena cava obstruction). Check if the patient has any pain (pain) Wash hands Inspection Look around the bed for clues, look at patient as a whole (thyroid status). Scars, tremor, myxoedema, wasting, periorbital puffiness, eye signs, swellings, asymmetry Ask for a glass of water if there is not one visible. If the swelling is a thyroglossal duct cyst, the upward tug when the patient protrudes their tongue is unmistakable. Note that the mouth must be open at the commencement of the test when the swelling is grasped. You may check for a lingual thyroid simultaneously at the base of the tongue whilst the patient’s mouth is open. Ask the patient to take a sip of water, hold it in their mouth and swallow when you instruct them to, with their chin slightly elevated (Does the lump move with swallowing? Palpation from behind Explain to the patient what you are about to do and then move behind them. Palpate from behind, but look at the patient’s face when you start to press on the thyroid for signs of discomfort. Check for the following: Tenderness Temperature Ask the patient to swallow again (this time ask yourself if you can you get below the thyroid gland when the patient swallows. Percussion Percuss from the sternum upwards to check for retrosternal extension Auscultation Auscultate for a thyroid bruit (whilst the patient holds their breath) Complete by: Assessing the patient’s thyroid status and asking him or her some questions. Offering to perform Pemberton’s test/sign – Ask the patient to elevate their arms above their head for 1 minute and look for congestion, cyanosis, stridor and distended neck veins, as a sign of a large retrosternal goitre. On entering the room: Introduce yourself to the patient (permission) Obtain consent Obtain adequate exposure (position) Check if the patient has any pain (pain) Wash hands Inspection Inspect both sides. Look carefully for scars (the Blair incision is most often used so demonstrate to the examiners you are looking carefully in front of the tragus, in the preauricular skin crease and around the earlobe. Ask the patient to tense the underlying masseter muscle by getting them to clench their jaw and test for fixity. Check the regional lymph node status – If you suspect the lump is a preauricular lymph node, examine the face and scalp carefully for a primary site of infection or neoplasia. Examine the oral cavity/oropharynx Check for the following: the parotid duct (Stensen’s duct) which lies opposite the upper second molar teeth (for pus, calculi etc. Try to express pus out the parotid duct by gently massaging the gland and looking inside the oral cavity at the duct orifice. The oropharynx for evidence of medialisation of the tonsils from a deep parotid lobe tumour or a tumour sited in the parapharyngeal space. However, its clinical value is limited compared with examination of the submandibular gland because the parotid lies behind the anterior edge of the masseter muscle and the vertical ramus of the mandible.