However order extra super levitra 100mg without prescription, buprenorphine may be associated with increases in liver function tests buy cheap extra super levitra 100mg line, and this may be especially true for patients with a history of hepatitis prior to the onset of buprenorphine treatment purchase 100mg extra super levitra with visa. Increases in liver function tests appear to be mild, and it is important to keep in mind that other factors commonly found in opioid dependent patients (such as hepatitis and alcohol abuse) can lead to elevations in liver function tests. The potential for buprenorphine-precipitated withdrawal has been covered elsewhere in the Basic Pharmacology section, and will not be reviewed in detail here. While it is possible for buprenorphine to precipitate withdrawal during buprenorphine induction, and this possibility has received significant attention and review in this curriculum, it is important to keep this potential in perspective. The likelihood for buprenorphine-precipitated withdrawal is low, and even when it does occur, it is mild in intensity and short in duration. The clinician should be aware of the potential, but not allow the potential to deter from the use of buprenorphine. Unlike full agonist opioids (such as methadone and heroin), the maximal opioid agonist effect produced by buprenorphine – a partial agonist – is relatively low. The maximal effects of buprenorphine appear to occur in the 8-16 mg dose range for sublingual solution (in non-dependent opioid abusers). This means that higher doses are unlikely to produce greater effects (and may actually produce fewer effects, based on pre-clinical evidence). This ceiling on the effects produced means buprenorphine is less likely to produce clinically significant respiratory depression. Opioid agonists 142 142 Benzodiazepines and other sedating drugs (1) z Reports of deaths when buprenorphine injected along with injected benzodiazepines. Most deaths appear to have been related to injection of the combination of dissolved buprenorphine tablets with benzodiazepine 143 Notes 1. It is not clear, based upon the French experience with buprenorphine-related deaths, if any patients have died from use of sublingual buprenorphine combined with oral benzodiazepine. It appears likely that most deaths have been related to injection of the combination of dissolved buprenorphine tablets with benzodiazepine. Note that the combination product (buprenorphine with naloxone) is designed to decrease the likelihood that people will dissolve and inject buprenorphine. For persons physically dependent on an illicit agonist opioid (like heroin), injection of buprenorphine/naloxone will precipitate withdrawal (or, if the dose is very low – e. For persons maintained on sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone, injection of buprenorphine/naloxone could produce opioid-agonist-like effects (with no precipitated withdrawal from the naloxone, since high doses of naloxone are needed to precipitate withdrawal in buprenorphine-maintained persons). Note that this is a population that will have access and may be very likely to dissolve and inject buprenorphine/naloxone tablets, since they will have a ready supply of them. For persons not physically dependent on opioids, naloxone will not precipitate withdrawal and it is likely the buprenorphine will produce opioid agonist effects. The y-axis shows the percentage of identifications of the buprenorphine as placebo, opiate, or something else. As can be seen, as the dose of sublingual buprenorphine increases, the percent of identifications as opiate-like increases (and the proportion of identifications as something else -- placebo or other, decreases). This illustrates buprenorphine’s identification as an opioid- agonist-like drug by persons with a history of opioid abuse. All placebo patients who dropped out did so following relapse to drug use (as determined by urine testing). In the maintenance group, one patient dropped out of treatment, and four were discharged due to relapse in their drug use. End of Workshop 3 153 153 Workshop 4: Opiate Antagonist Treatment: Naloxone for Overdose, Naltrexone for Relapse Prevention 154 154 Training objectives At the end of this training you will: 1. Understand the challenges and limitations of naltrexone treatment 155 155 Naloxone for Opiate Overdose 156 156 Naloxone for opiate overdose z Naloxone is a medication used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. Continued 157 157 Naloxone for opiate overdose z The drug is derived from thebaine and has an extremely high affinity for µ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Continued 159 159 Signs of opioid overdose z Unconscious (does not respond verbally or by opening eyes when spoken to loudly and shaken gently) z Constricted pupils z Hypoventilation (respiration rate too slow or tidal volume too low) z Cool moist skin 160 160 Opioid overdose: Steps to take (1) If an opioid overdose is suspected: z Oxygen, if available z Naloxone – 0. Dose may be repeated after 2 minutes if no response, to a maximum of 10mg z Call ambulance z Advise reception of emergency and location 161 161 Opioid overdose: Steps to take (2) Assess the client: If responsive z Airway – open and clear z Breathing – respiratory rate and volume z Circulation – carotid pulse 162 162 Opioid overdose: Steps to take (3) If unresponsive, respiratory arrest, or hypoventilating z Call ambulance z Place in lateral coma position if breathing spontaneously z Bag and mask, ventilate with oxygen for hypoventilation z Naloxone 0. Projects of this type are underway in San Francisco and Chicago, and pilot projects started in Scotland in 2006. Therefore, adjunctive medicines often are necessary to treat insomnia, muscle pain, bone pain, and headache. Buprenorphine can be successfully used for withdrawal management (gradually tapered) and then naltrexone started after 3-5 days for maintenance. This withdrawal procedure might be much more convenient than the use of clonidine, which has a significant effect on blood pressure. This weekly dose should be divided up according to one of the following schedules: z 50 mg (one tablet) every day; or z 50 mg a day during the week and 100 mg (two tablets) on Saturday; or z 100 mg every other day; or z 100 mg on Mondays and Wednesdays, and 150 mg (three tablets) on Fridays; or z 150 mg every three days 179 179 Naltrexone for opiate relapse prevention (1) Side effects Precautions z Acute opioid withdrawal z If naltrexone ceased and precipitated opioid use reinstated, (e. Therefore, a favourable treatment outcome requires a positive therapeutic relationship, careful monitoring of medication compliance, and effective behavioural interventions. A llergy • A llergic reaction is an exaggerated or inappropriate im m une reaction and causes dam age to the host. Th e sensitiz ationprocess begins wh enm acroph ages degrade th e allergenand display th e resulting fragm ents to T lym ph ocytes. F ollowing th is,ina process involving secretion ofinterleukin4 by T cells,B lym ph ocytes m ature into plasm a cells able to secrete allergen-specificm olecules knownas IgE antibodies. O nfurth erexposure betweenth e allergenand th e im m une system ,allergenm olecules bind to IgE antibodies onm astcells. W h enone such m olecule connects with two IgE m olecules onth e cell surface,itdraws togeth erth e attach ed IgE receptors,th ereby directly orindirectly activating various enz ym es inth e cellm em brane. C ascades ofch em icals and enz ym es are released from intracellular granules Th ese cascades also appearto prom ote th e synth esis and release ofch em icals knownas cytokines. C h em icals em itted by activated m astcells and th eirneigh bours intissue m ay induce basoph ils, eosinoph ils,and oth ercells flowing th rough blood vessels to m igrate into th attissue. Th e ch em icals facilitate m igrationby prom oting th e expressionand activity ofadh esionm olecules onth e circulating cells and onvascularendoth elialcells. Th e circulating cells th enattach to th e endoth elialcells, rollalong th em ,and eventually,cross betweenth em into th e surrounding m atrix. Th ese recruited cells secrete ch em icals ofth eirown,wh ich cansustainim m une activity and dam age tissue. N eonatal & infant im m une system s S erialinfections Im m une response Th 1 Th 2 Th 2 A ge B alanced Th 1/Th 2 Th e intrauterine environm entis powerfully Th 2 – at~2yr th is im prints Th 2 dom inance uponth e neonate D elayed m aturation of Th1 capacity F ew serialinfections – h ygiene,sm allfam ily siz e etc Im m une response Th 1 Th 2 A ge U nbalanced Th 1/Th 2 Th 2 dom inance at~2yr L ongerperiod oftim e inwh ich to m ake and establish Th 2 responses to environm entalantigens (i. This m ay have resulted in m ore w idespread clinical expression of atopic disease" Itcanbe interpreted interm s ofa failure to m icrobially m odulate default Th 2 responses inch ildh ood Fam ily history for asthm a and cum ulative incidence of allergic diseases in offspring. G enetics Clim ate change im pact on the ecosystem of pollen‐producing plants Environm ent Cutaneous exposure to a food allergen, especially to inflam ed skin,m ay be a sensitizing route. W ith a concom itant lack of oral exposure to induce tolerance, the effect could N utrition be prom oting food allergy The com plex interplay betw een hostand environm entalfactors leading to allergic diseases A llergic R hinitis • R hinitis ‐ definition: Inflam m ation of the m em branes lining the nose • Characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching of the nose, and/ or post nasal drainage, dry cough, ocular sym ptom s • A llergic rhinitis ‐ definition: Rhinitis that is caused by an IgE‐m ediated reaction to an aeroallergen. C opyrigh tElsevier2002 Food A llergy A dverse food reaction ‐ any aberrant reaction after ingestion of a food or food additive • Toxic reactions — due to toxin (bacterial, other) present in a food • N ontoxic reactions ‐ depends on individual susceptibilities • Im m une ‐ allergy or hypersensitivity (Type I) • N onim m une – intolerances: D ue to pharm acological properties of the food (caffeine or tyram ine), U nique susceptibility of the host (lactase deficiency), E. The English version serves two purposes: as a learning aid for international students and to encourage German-speaking students to familiarize themselves with medical English; the lectures are delivered in German. The translation from the original German version is my own; I am afraid it will occasionally sound appalling to native English speakers, but it should at least be intelligible.
Hypodermis The hypodermis (also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia) is a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles discount 100mg extra super levitra visa. It is not strictly a part of the skin purchase extra super levitra online pills, although the border between the hypodermis and dermis can be difficult to distinguish buy cheap extra super levitra line. The hypodermis consists of well- vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument. This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma. Where the fat is deposited and accumulates within the hypodermis depends on hormones (testosterone, estrogen, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and others), as well as genetic factors. Men tend to accumulate fat in different areas (neck, arms, lower back, and abdomen) than do women (breasts, hips, thighs, and buttocks). Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit. In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. In much of the developed world, insufficient exercise coupled with the ready availability and consumption of high-calorie foods have resulted in unwanted accumulations of adipose tissue in many people. Although periodic accumulation of excess fat may have provided an evolutionary advantage to our ancestors, who experienced unpredictable bouts of famine, it is now becoming chronic and considered a major health threat. Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. Changes in lifestyle, specifically in diet and exercise, are the best ways to control body fat accumulation, especially when it reaches levels that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Pigmentation The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Recall that melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are found scattered throughout the stratum basale of the epidermis. The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular vesicle called a melanosome (Figure 5. In contrast, too much melanin can interfere with the production of vitamin D, an important nutrient involved in calcium absorption. It requires about 10 days after initial sun exposure for melanin synthesis to peak, which is why pale-skinned individuals tend to suffer sunburns of the epidermis initially. Dark-skinned individuals can also get sunburns, but are more protected than are pale-skinned individuals. Melanosomes are temporary structures that are eventually destroyed by fusion with lysosomes; this fact, along with melanin-filled keratinocytes in the stratum corneum sloughing off, makes tanning impermanent. Moles are larger masses of melanocytes, and although most are benign, they should be monitored for changes that might indicate the presence of cancer (Figure 5. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Although neither is fatal, it would be hard to claim that they are benign, at least to the individuals so afflicted. Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects (completely or partially) the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes. Individuals with albinism tend to appear white or very pale due to the lack of melanin in their skin and hair. They also tend to be more sensitive to light and have vision problems due to the lack of pigmentation on the retinal wall. In vitiligo, the melanocytes in certain areas lose their ability to produce melanin, possibly due to an autoimmune reaction. Peter) Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems. Liver disease or liver cancer can cause the accumulation of bile and the yellow pigment bilirubin, leading to the skin appearing yellow or jaundiced (jaune is the French word for “yellow”). With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). This happens when the oxygen supply is restricted, as when someone is experiencing difficulty in breathing because of asthma or a heart attack. These structures embryologically originate from the epidermis and can extend down through the dermis into the hypodermis. The hair shaft is the part of the hair not anchored to the follicle, and much of this is exposed at the skin’s surface. The rest of the hair, which is anchored in the follicle, lies below the surface of the skin and is referred to as the hair root. The hair root ends deep in the dermis at the hair bulb, and includes a layer of mitotically active basal cells called the hair matrix. The hair bulb surrounds the hair papilla, which is made of connective tissue and contains blood capillaries and nerve endings from the dermis (Figure 5. Just as the basal layer of the epidermis forms the layers of epidermis that get pushed to the surface as the dead skin on the surface sheds, the basal cells of the hair bulb divide and push cells outward in the hair root and shaft as the hair grows. The medulla forms the central core of the hair, which is surrounded by the cortex, a layer of compressed, keratinized cells that is covered by an outer layer of very hard, keratinized cells known as the cuticle. Hair texture (straight, curly) is determined by the shape and structure of the cortex, and to the extent that it is present, the medulla. As new cells are deposited at the hair bulb, the hair shaft is pushed through the follicle toward the surface. Keratinization is completed as the cells are pushed to the skin surface to form the shaft of hair that is externally visible. Furthermore, you can cut your hair or shave without damaging the hair structure because the cut is superficial. Most chemical hair removers also act superficially; however, electrolysis and yanking both attempt to destroy the hair bulb so hair cannot grow. The cells of the internal root sheath surround the root of the growing hair and extend just up to the hair shaft. It is made of basal cells at the base of the hair root and tends to be more keratinous in the upper regions. The glassy membrane is a thick, clear connective tissue sheath covering the hair root, connecting it to the tissue of the dermis. The hair follicle is made of multiple layers of cells that form from basal cells in the hair matrix and the hair root. Hair serves a variety of functions, including protection, sensory input, thermoregulation, and communication. The hair in the nose and ears, and around the eyes (eyelashes) defends the body by trapping and excluding dust particles that may contain allergens and microbes. Hair also has a sensory function due to sensory innervation by a hair root plexus surrounding the base of each hair follicle. Hair is extremely sensitive to air movement or other disturbances in the environment, much more so than the skin surface. This feature is also useful for the detection of the presence of insects or other potentially damaging substances on the skin surface.
Effects of levocetirizine as add-on therapy to fluticasone in seasonal allergic rhinitis buy discount extra super levitra line. The minimal clinically important difference in allergic respiratory diseases in Europe purchase extra super levitra 100mg with visa. Services buy genuine extra super levitra on line, Food and Drug Administration, Center for Facts and fictions about non-allergic rhinitis. Drug Evaluation and Research, Center for Biologics Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Arb Paul Ehrlich quality of life in subjects 18-64 years of age with Inst Bundesamt Sera Impfstoffe Frankf A M. Development and validation of the mini Leukotriene receptor antagonists for allergic rhinitis: Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. A the strength of a body of evidence when comparing questionnaire to measure quality of life in adults with medical interventions. Safety and efficacy of loratadine (Sch-29851): a new Treatment with intranasal fluticasone propionate non-sedating antihistamine in seasonal allergic significantly improves ocular symptoms in patients rhinitis. Triamcinolone for outcomes assessment of antihistamine use for acetonide aqueous nasal spray versus loratadine in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Comparison of intranasal Antihistamine, with Clemastine and Placebo in triamcinolone acetonide with oral loratadine in the Patients with Fall Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. A comparison of the efficacy of aqueous nasal spray and loratadine, alone and in azelastine nasal spray and loratidine tablets in the combination, for the treatment of seasonal allergic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Comparison of Fluticasone furoate nasal spray is more effective than intranasal triamcinolone acetonide with oral fexofenadine for nighttime symptoms of seasonal loratadine for the treatment of patients with seasonal allergy. Comparative efficacy and safety of a once-daily Concomitant montelukast and loratadine as treatment loratadine-pseudoephedrine combination versus its for seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized, placebo- components alone and placebo in the management of controlled clinical trial. Cetirizine and pseudoephedrine retard, given alone or Montelukast for treating seasonal allergic rhinitis: a in combination, in patients with seasonal allergic randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial rhinitis. Efficacy Randomized controlled trial evaluating the clinical and safety of an extended-release formulation of benefit of montelukast for treating spring seasonal desloratadine and pseudoephedrine vs the individual allergic rhinitis. Journal of once-daily desloratadine/pseudoephedrine for relief Allergy & Clinical Immunology. Italian Journal of Allergy and placebo controlled study comparing the efficacy of Clinical Immunology. Effect of intranasal azelastine and beclomethasone Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray provided dipropionate on nasal symptoms, nasal cytology, and significantly greater improvement in daytime and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine in allergic nighttime nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis rhinitis in response to grass pollens. Combination therapy with azelastine hydrochloride Evaluation of treatment response in patients with nasal spray and fluticasone propionate nasal spray in seasonal allergic rhinitis using domiciliary nasal peak the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic inspiratory flow. Treatment of seasonal fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray taken allergic rhinitis with budesonide and disodium alone and in combination with cetirizine in the cromoglycate. A double-blind clinical comparison prophylactic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Randomized placebo-controlled trial comparing Prevention of pollen rhinitis symptoms: comparison fluticasone aqueous nasal spray in mono-therapy, of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray and fluticasone plus cetirizine, fluticasone plus disodium cromoglycate aqueous nasal spray. A montelukast and cetirizine plus montelukast for multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel- seasonal allergic rhinitis. Efficacy, Efficacy and safety of loratadine suspension in the cost-effectiveness, and tolerability of mometasone treatment of children with allergic rhinitis. A Comparison of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal comparison of beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous spray and oral montelukast for the treatment of nasal spray and sodium cromoglycate nasal spray in seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms. Fluticasone propionate nasal spray is superior to comparative trial of flunisolide and sodium montelukast for allergic rhinitis while neither affects cromoglycate nasal sprays in the treatment of overall asthma control. Comparison of a nasal glucocorticoid, Analysis of disease-dependent sedative profiles of antileukotriene, and a combination of antileukotriene H(1)-antihistamines by large-scale surveillance using and antihistamine in the treatment of seasonal allergic the visual analog scale. Disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of seasonal The efficacy and tolerability of two novel H(1)/H(3) allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children. Comparison of budesonide and disodium cromoglycate for the treatment of seasonal 146. Montelukast as an serum markers of bone metabolism in children with adjuvant to mainstay therapies in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Prednisone/ or (Prednisone or Liquid Pred or Deltasone or Meticorten or Orasone or Prednicen or Sterapred or Prednicot). Loratadine/ or (Loratadine or Desloratadine or Clarinex or Claritin or Triaminic or Agistam or Alavert or Bactimicina allergy or Clear-atadine or Loradamed). Pyridines/ or (Carbinoxamine or Carboxine or Cordron or Histuss or Palgic or Pediatex or Pediox or Arbinoxa). Chlorpheniramine/ or (Chlorpheniramine or Chlo-Amine or Chlor-Phen or Krafthist or Chlortan or Ed ChlorPed or P-Tann or Allerlief or Chlor-Al Rel or Myci Chlorped or Pediatan or Ahist or Aller-Chlor or Chlor-Mal or Chlor-Phenit or Diabetic Tussin or Ed Chlor Tan or Ridramin or Teldrin or Uni-Cortrom). Leukotriene Antagonists/ or (Leukotriene Antagonist$ or Montelukast or Singulair). Tann$ or Relera or Rescon or Respahist or Rhinabid or RhinaHist or Ricobid or Ridifed or Rinade$ or Rinate or Robitussin Night$ or Rondamine or Rondec or Rondex or Rymed or Ryna Liquid or Rynatan or Semprex or Seradex or Shellcap or Sildec or Sinuhist or Sonahist or Suclor or SudaHist or Sudal or Sudo Chlor or Suphenamine or SuTan or Tanabid or Tanafed or Tanahist or Tekral or Time-Hist or Touro or Triafed or Triphed or Tri-Pseudo or Triptifed or Trisofed or Tri-Sudo or Trisudrine or Trynate or Ultrabrom or Vazobid or Vazotab or V-Hist or Vi-Sudo or X-Hist or XiraHist or Zinx Chlor$ or Zotex). Dexamethasone/ or (Dexamethasone or Baycadron or Hexadrol or Decadron or Dexium or Dexone or DexPak). Prednisolone/ or (Prednisolone or asmalPred Plus or Millipred or Pediapred or Prelone or Veripred or Flo-Pred or Cotolone or Orapred or Prednoral). Prednisone/ or (Prednisone or Liquid Pred or Deltasone or Meticorten or Orasone or Prednicen or Sterapred or Prednicot). Loratadine/ or (Loratadine or Desloratadine or Clarinex or Claritin or Triaminic or Agistam or Alavert or Bactimicina allergy or Clear-atadine or Loradamed). Brompheniramine/ or (Brompheniramine or Lodrane or Tridane or Bromaphen or Brovex or B-vex or Tanacof or Bidhist or Bromax or Respa or Brompsiro or Dimetane or Siltane or Vazol or Conex or J-Tan). Carbinoxamine/ or (Carboxine or Cordron or Histuss or Palgic or Pediatex or Pediox or Arbinoxa). Chlorpheniramine/ or (Chlorpheniramine or Chlo-Amine or Chlor-Phen or Krafthist or Chlortan or Ed ChlorPed or P-Tann or Allerlief or Chlor-Al Rel or Myci Chlorped or Pediatan or Ahist or Aller-Chlor or Chlor-Mal or Chlor-Phenit or Diabetic Tussin or Ed Chlor Tan or Ridramin or Teldrin or Uni-Cortrom). Decongestive agent/ or Phenylephrine/ or (nasal decongestant$ or Levmetamfetamine or vapo? Pseudoephedrine/ or (oral decongestant$ or Ah-chew$ or Gilchew or Phenyl-T or Despec or Lusonal or Pseudoephedrine or Afrinol or Contac or Efidac or Suphedrine or Decofed or Elixsure or Ephed 60 or Kid Kare or Myfedrine. Tann$ or Relera or Rescon or Respahist or Rhinabid or RhinaHist or Ricobid or Ridifed or Rinade$ or Rinate or Robitussin Night$ or Rondamine or Rondec or Rondex or Rymed or Ryna Liquid or Rynatan or Semprex or Seradex or Shellcap or Sildec or Sinuhist or Sonahist or Suclor or SudaHist or Sudal or Sudo Chlor or Suphenamine or SuTan or Tanabid or Tanafed or Tanahist or Tekral or Time-Hist or Touro or Triafed or Triphed or Tri-Pseudo or Triptifed or Trisofed or Tri-Sudo or Trisudrine or Trynate or Ultrabrom or Vazobid or Vazotab or V-Hist or Vi-Sudo or X-Hist or XiraHist or Zinx Chlor$ or Zotex). A double-blind controlled trial of disodium cromoglycate in seasonal allergic rhinitis. A rhinomanometric study to demonstrate synergism between antihistamines and adrenergic substance.
Complete and utter openness is essential best buy for extra super levitra, especially if you have chosen a financing scheme where the author only receives a fee if the printing costs are covered extra super levitra 100mg for sale. The English version If you write your text in English order extra super levitra on line amex, it will be read by tens of thousands. Another good reason for translating a text into English is that this might be the only way to benefit from the copyright removal idea (see next section): Who speaks your language if it is not English? A book which is not translated into English is – globally speaking – being kept in a strait jacket. Removal of the copyright If you remove the copyright of your book, this is roughly what you tell the world: 70 Removal of the copyright “My dear colleagues, translate our book into any language of your choice except English and your mother tongue, and publish the translation. If you want, you can even publish it under your own name (of course, you must state the source clearly and visibly! After removal of the copyright, the text was translated into eight languages (http://sarsreference. The mailing lists of our various internet activities were crucial here: Amedeo (www. Playground, creativity actually meagre: a dozen translations for more than 100,000 e-mails sent. It would be a pity if the idea of copyright removal only failed because most people don’t have mailing lists of 100,000 or more e-mail addresses. The term is not quite correct linguistically, but everyone understands what it is about: we are bringing together those who release the books with those who want to translate them. Once again, we are using our mailing lists, which in March 2005 contained more than 170,000 e- mail addresses. A blog – also known as a weblog – is a website which is updated daily or several times a day. In the early days of blogs – at the end of the 90s – the authors (the bloggers) told tales of their surfing tours through the internet and wrote “internet diaries”. In addition, bloggers like to refer to the blogs of other bloggers, so that blogs are closely connected to each other. Nowadays, it is easy and costs nothing to create and maintain blogs directly on the internet. The result is blog inflation, and most blogs today are simply personally coloured depictions of life with more or less racy details from the blogger’s private life. However : we need to check out every new kind of technology in the world to see if it can be of use to us. For example: We document the development process of our project: Why are we writing? This paragraph repeats something which has already been said, that one is incomprehensible or too long-winded, in a third paragraph the linguistic standards have slipped. In the weeks before publication of this book, we gave daily accounts of everything about the project in an experimental blog. The question which we occasionally asked was: why, in addition to pre-publication (free online version) and publication (a book available for a fee), pre-pre-publication in a blog? Conclusion Whereas for some people a book is completed after the last sentence, for others the adventure begins at this point. The advertising and marketing of books alone is an experience from which doctors can learn a lot. Summary Editor/Publisher Produce a pocket edition – it will be consulted more often than a book weighing a kilogram. Something you have written in English will be read 10 to 100 times more often than a text which does not exist in English. Playground, creativity Author Ask yourself if you can contribute to the expansion of the website. Do you have any ideas as to how the website of the project can be supplemented by an intelligent blog? Students If English is not your mother tongue: get used to the idea that information is only circulated on a global level if it is written in English. Bystander The removal of copyright was one of the creative contributions of the internet towards spreading medical knowledge more quickly. The author is available to committed colleagues at all times (contact via the known e-mail addresses). Epilogue You have seen how quickly you have produced a book and a website with your team of authors. The seventh day 80 Materials Letter to your authors – Working with Word – Copyright removal A. Letter to your authors My dear friends, May we take this opportunity to remind you of the deadline for our book project: 30th September 2006 As in the past few years, we can guarantee an author’s fee of X € + Y€ (X Euro now, another Y Euro once printing costs have been covered). On condition that: your chapters are updated and the literature published up to August 2006 is integrated into the text; the text arrives here by 30th September; the citations are newly compiled and correctly formatted (see below for further details). Original documents The text must only be written in the Word document which we have enclosed here. Citations In the text, the citation is placed between round brackets, only giving the surname of the first author and the year (Hoffmann 2004). There are more details in these three lines than you may think: There is no full stop after the initials of first names; several initials are written together. If there are more than 6 authors, the first 3 are named, then comes a comma, followed by “et al” and finished with a full stop. Only the end digits of the last page number, which are necessary for clear identification, are given. Thus, 2423-2429 becomes 2423-9, 134-141 becomes 134-41, 1891-1901 becomes 1891-901. Working with Word Working with styles Font size and typeface should only be changed via the so-called templates. Compiling the reference lists Citations must be given according to a uniform pattern. Tables Tables serve to break up the text and summarise important information in a concise manner. Working with Word Planning a medical textbook Only write if you want your book to be No. Those who cannot perform this task themselves should delegate the job to a professional reader. Keyboard shortcuts You write the text with your fingers, so you should use the many keyboard shortcuts. Your hand then stays on the keyboard, and you save yourself the trouble of reaching for the mouse. However, the main page of the publication – be it the home page of a website or a book cover – must mention the source of the information in this way: Adapted from www. In addition, the authors of the individual chapters have to be mentioned at the beginning of every single chapter. The translation into any other language must reproduce the original documents faithfully.