By T. Jens. Fairfield University.

This compound and other metabolites may act to better protect the prostate from oxidative damage as well as promote apoptosis (programmed cell death) buy 20 mg atorlip-20 with amex, which helps prevent cells from becoming cancerous buy generic atorlip-20 20 mg line. A pilot study on the liver protective effect of silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex (IdB 1016) in chronic active hepatitis purchase 20mg atorlip-20 free shipping. It is generally recommended to been washed in soaps and detergents to regain the anesthetize a bird with isoflurane to ensure that a normal color and water resistance of their plumage. Whole body radiographs re- tion of the nucleus of the infected macro- Diff-Quik stain. On the other side of the sword, highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules lead to free radical or oxidative damage. These trials have used several doses of aspirin ranging from 325 to 1,500 mg per day, and enrolled patients at various intervals after the heart attack, ranging from four weeks to five years. The anes- of an existing granuloma is damaged or where inef- thetic agent of choice for most endoscopic procedures fective sterilization practices have been used. Short walks and light stretching are useful, but heavy workouts tax the system and inhibit repair and elimination. Antibiotics specifically defined and occupy rather small areas on should not be used prophylactically, but only when an antigen, an antibody produced against one anti- specifically indicated. Evidence of a genetic factor was first noted in studies of twins, yet in identical twins the chance that one twin will develop the disease if the other already has it is only 15%. Therefore, over the past 10 years, many efforts have been made to reduce the use of these medications in order to improve patients’ outcomes. Otherwise, the guidelines in the chapter “A Health-Promoting Diet” are appropriate. They may consist only of barbs or have Pulp caps Keratinizing epidermis that covers the distal extremity a shaft and plumulaceous barbs. Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance refers to the inability to properly digest lactose, the sugar found in milk and other dairy products. It deficiencies produced feather changes in young is possible that amino acid deficiencies could alter the cockatiels that resembled achromatosis caused by structure of keratin and consequently alter feather lysine deficiency in poultry. This may explain some of the anti- inflammatory effects of the Mediterranean diet, which includes fish but relatively little meat. Little on the biology and pathology of these lated to gapeworms has been reported from the air nematodes is known, but the life cycle probably in- sacs of a Sulphur-crested Cockatoo. You need to practice speaking before you think instead of thinking before you speak—acting without thinking, instead of thinking or "considering carefully" before you act. Following mor type, testicular neoplasias can involve one or the correct environmental stimuli, the testicles can both testes. No patient in this study had significant morbidity or mortality, Crowd-Control Agents 185 B C Fig. Not infrequently, alcohol concentrations will be measured in accident victims taken for treatment at trauma centers. Treating this patient with antiemetics, antacids, and pain medications might provide temporary relief, but the astute clinician should be concerned with cardiac pathology in any diabetic patient with nausea and vomiting. These tumors are reported to cause a classic clinical Circulatory Disturbances syndrome described as somnolence with occasional Both peripheral and central neuropathies have been convulsions, uncoordinated wing-flapping and clonic as so c iat e d wi th dimin is he d c irculat ion. The parents of this bird produced a defective neonate every four to six chicks, suggesting that the problem was genetic in origin. Lots of scientists reach international recognition, exploiting the possibilities provided by local, national and international collaborations. Pinus 10 Vaccinium vitis Vitis 200 the hormone showed any interaction in biological activity. Open carpal tunnel release surgery is one of the most commonly performed outpatient surgeries and is less expensive than the newer endoscopic procedures. Recovery from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with altered renal hemodynamics, blunted pres- sure natriuresis, and sodium-sensitive hypertension. Remission of rheumatoid arthritis after acute disseminated varicella-zoster infection. Relative to transgenic approaches, clinically relevant questions may be: What are the consequences of gene transfer and expression in 1, 5, or 10% of the target cell population? The acute toxicity test was observed that the 70% ethanolic and aqueous extract showed lethality effect. Many smaller Passerifor- mes begin breeding in the first or second spring after hatching. Sexual maturity fresh fruits (eg, melons, papaya, berries, tomatoes) generally occurs by three years of age. Practical: Abdominal examination (inspection, palpation, 15th week: percussion, topography). Additionally, the force placed on the band becomes uncontrolled at the point where the cutters fully penetrate the band, and undue stress is placed on the leg. Te antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Markel G, Krivoy A, Rotman E et al (2008) Medical Management of Toxicologi- cal Mass Casualty Events. Rolfing, Hellerwork, and other deep tissue treatments attempt to bring the body back into balance, restore efficiency of movement, and increase mobility by stretching and lengthening the fascia to bring it back it to its natural form and pliability. Starches, complex carbohydrates, and even simple sugars (disaccharides) such as sucrose are broken down in the digestive tract into glucose by the action of certain enzymes. The detection windows depend on a few different factors, including the amount of substance used/administered and the frequency of use. System requirements describe the particular sofware and hardware needed to view the message and/or its attachments. Extra-abdominal wall substantial amount of weight has a reduced muscle mass and prominent sternum. The bird flew into a wall and caudal thoracic air sac is also clearly visible sustained multiple fractures. Both renal Iron is unique in that body reserves are conserved disease and diarrhea may cause sodium depletion. Visible pathological changes of vital organs as well as histopathological studies were carried out. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. The disorder may last several weeks or months and is quite different from the fleeting hallucinations observed in other forms of alcohol withdrawal. I gave George back his old face by plas- tic surgery which removed the scar tissue and restored his features. Association of pre-senile cataracts with heterozygosity for galactosemic states and riboflavin deficiency. Anticoagulation strategies in continuous renal replacement therapy: can the choice be evidence based? The plant extract was prepared from powdered rhizomes by using polar and non-polar solvents. Progressive pulmonary tuberculosis may result in cavitary fibrocaseous tuberculosis, miliary tuber- culosis, or tuberculous bronchopneumonia.

Surface ducks Latency (20 purchase cheap atorlip-20 online,21) Acute respiratory disease; upper respiratory Bay ducks Latency exudates 20 mg atorlip-20 amex, rales and dyspnea buy atorlip-20 20 mg low cost. Thus, genotyping or genetic screening coupled with genetic counseling may replace the need for gene therapies. Ambulation and sphincter functions will also require additional spe- cific documentation. Vasoformative neoplasms are classified as benign (hemangioma, lymphangioma) or malignant (hemangiosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma). Metabo- Samples can be collected by crop lavage or by passing lic problems include hepatic and renal disease (see a flexible swab directly into the crop. Use of nica- pertensives and is dosed every 8–24h in infants and rdipine also allows transition over to a long-acting oral children [41]. Mitochondrial Function and Energy Production Mitochondria are among the most important compartments (organelles) within a cell. Understanding and identifying the most potent islet to monitor the status of diabetic stressed beta cells within the neogenic active principle of this plant serves the aim of this pancreas upon such herbal treatments and mechanisms of study, which is the most essential criteria for developing the plant products mediated beta cell replenishment. A boy who was dropped from one college because of poor grades, entered Columbia and became a straight "A" stu- dent. There were a total of 1138 road user fatalities, in- cluding drivers, riders of two-wheeled vehicles (34 of them cyclists), passen- gers in vehicles, and pedestrians; more than 6% tested positive for medicinal drugs, 18% for illicit drugs (mainly cannabis), and 12% for alcohol. Spe- of the time on the enclosure floor mimicking incuba- cific behavioral manifestations of endocrine abnor- tion activities. Although these laboratory examinations are useful diagnostic aids, they should be used to confirm the diagnosis. These data suggest that the alcoholic extracts have antihistaminic and anti 5- hydroxytryptamine effects and the active principle may probably resides in the saponin glycoside component. Risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome among adult intensive care unit patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutritional Supplementation Nutritional supplementation encompasses the use of vitamins, minerals, other food factors, and botanicals to support good health as well as prevent or treat illness. Standard drug, glibenclamide (4mg/kg) produced significant decreased in blood glucose levels from 2hr up to 4hr (P<0. These pipes are inhaler-type devices containing tiny salt particles said to ease breathing. The results of this study provide scientific basis for the use of the plant extract in the treatment of skin and wound infection. One of the most detailed studies of the effects of culture on menopause involved rural Mayans. Arkansas population distribution, with shaded relief features of the physical landscape [map]. If a student fails the “C” semester exam the department provides him/her a chance to prove his/her knowledge of molecular biology in an oral exam in front of an official examination committee. The initial choice of an antibiotic depends on the Antibiotics clinical signs and history of the bird. Gene marking to determine whether autologous marrow infusion restores long-term haemopoiesis in cancer patients. Over-supplementation may cause problems with excess vitamin, mineral, fat or protein Tibial dyschondroplasia is characterized by uncalci- consumption. Instead, it is now possible to introduce large changes into the genome in one step. The incidence of mites vidual involved in providing emergency care to a sick and lice is low in captive psittacine birds but they or injured bird. Many trichotecenes, notably T toxin, can cause caus-2 tic injury to the alimentary mucosa. Fibrinogen, which is produced by the liver and not endothelial cells, is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin. This absence of powder from the powder down feathers (if gives the bird something to chew on, as well as present) and oil from the preen gland (if present). The clinical diagnosis of a spinal cord injury in the conscious patient without major associated injuries can be made without difficulty. Next, use your imagination to practice non-response in various sorts of situations: See yourself sitting quietly and un- moved while an associate rants and raves. Bizarre-to-multinucleated hepatocytes On gross inspection, the hepatic parenchyma con- may be observed. Influence of nuclear and cytoplasmic activity on the development in vivo of sheep embryos after nuclear transplantation. Diagnostic endoscopy nations was believed to be an essential tool in under- is usually preceded by less-invasive examinations standing certain anatomic relationships in juvenile such as a complete blood count, biochemistries or macaws. The chemicals such as, alkaloids, steroids/triterpenes, tannins and reducing sugars proposed to be the chemicals responsible for antidiarrhoeal effect were present in both ethanolic extract and dried powders. Kolterman, “Is pramlintide a insulinonpromoteractivity,”Journal of Biological Chemistry, safe and efective adjunct therapy for patients with type 1 dia- vol. The mucolytic and expectorant action of ivy is due to the saponins alpha-hederin and hederacoside C, the latter of which is metabolized to alpha-hederin when ingested. Normal liver selenium levels are not available for Lymphoma was diagnosed in a three-year-old female ratites but levels below 0. In acute and chronic tile; when grown at higher temperatures it is nonmo- cases, inflammatory cells infiltrate the necrotic areas tile. Your records should help you determine how many slides and of what structure you should have. In of viral antigen within macrophages in the bone mar- young birds, the cloacal bursa may be small with row and within circulating monocytes suggests that poorly developed folds and the thymus may reveal these cells may be directly infected (Color 32. Causes for sinoatrial arrest in birds include excessive vagal pendent on the presence of atrial systole, stimulation, thiamine deficiency, vitamin E deficiency and poisoning with perhaps through the effect of atrial relaxa- organophosphorus compounds. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Conference Proceedings Te general format for a reference to a conference proceedings, including punctuation: - with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference title: - with only a conference title: 290 Citing Medicine Examples of Citations to Conference Proceedings Conference proceedings are a collection of the papers presented at a conference, symposium, congress, or other meeting. Recently, the contribution of microparticles to various pathophysiologic processes has gained interest. The feet should have prominent scale patterns on both the dorsal and plantar surfaces. Non-spe- neoplasm, but an inflammatory intumescence result- cific use of thyroxine should be avoided, and treat- ing from the accumulation of lipid-laden macro- ment of lipomas in the absence of hypothyroidism is 66,113 phages, giant cells, free cholesterol and variable de- not an indication for thyroxine administration. Cellulitis and abscesses may be seen around injection sites, and deep abscesses may extend into joints, producing septic arthritis. Eventually this traffic across the membrane will be equal in both directions and the two solutions The indications for renal replacement therapy in the will be in equilibrium. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Effects of oleoresin capsicum pepper spray on human corneal morphology and sensitivity. The skin of the labia majora and the outer aspects of the labia minora is keratinized squamous epithelium, but only the outer aspects of the labia majora are hair bearing. Cytoplasmic and nuclear frac- for 24 h before diabetes mellitus had been induced and tions of the mice kidneys were separated as described [7].

The White-fronted Amazon Parrot was studied over If the bird is in a nest and experiences only its a period of two years to map the normal social behav- natural parents discount 20mg atorlip-20 overnight delivery, it “imprints” as that type of bird order atorlip-20 with a visa. Despite its philosophical links to many cultures purchase atorlip-20, modern naturopathic medicine grew out of natural healing systems in 18th- and 19th-century Europe and the United States. Serum magnesium comprises less than 1% of total body magnesium and presents in three Magnesium is the second most common intracellu- states: ionized (62%), protein bound (33%), mainly to lar cation after potassium, and the fourth most com- albumin, and bound to anions (5%) such as phosphate mon cation in the body. Just how a mechanism as small as the human brain can store such a vast amount of in- formation is still a mystery. David clearly proved that was possible just by virtue of his surviving for those first 12 years. To characterize perlecan expression profle upon treatment with high-glucose condition, time course analysis of perlecan immunoprecipitation was conducted in 3A- Sub-E cell lysates with pretreatment of 30 mM D-glucose for 24, 48, and 72 h. This will stimulate wing flapping and should common with hypovitaminosis A (Color 8. Place all translated publisher names in square brackets unless the translation will be given in the publication. Yellow discoloration of the urates is sugges- A cockatiel was presented for emergency tive of hepatitis. Neck: supple with negative meningeal signs, + midline enlarged mass, non- tender, no stridor (must ask) g. Paper with title containing a chemical formula or special character 6 Sperling P, Lee M, Girke T, Zahringer U, Stymne S, Heinz E. Effect of forskolin on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in extrinsic asthmatics. These such as ampicillin and amoxicillin, are effective concentrations might be effective for highly suscepti- against many gram-positive and some gram-negative ble gram-negative bacteria. It is taken sublingually, and self-administration of the drug in the custodial environment must be personally supervised by the doctor who should observe the patient for 5 min to ensure that the drug has fully dissolved (22). Elevations in cholesterol may be the result of low thyroid function (hypothyroidism); see the chapter “Hypothyroidism. A weighting system has been developed, multiplying each domain score according to its “importance”. Moreover, protein, fibre, fat, vitamin B1, Vitamin C and carbohydrate were observed as nutrients content. Is the functional reach test useful for identifying falls risk among individuals with Parkinson’s disease? Unfortunately, the oral boards are an artifcial environment and we lose the edge that we’ve come to rely on, our senses. Vasomotor lability is prevalent, and migraine headaches are three times more common in persons with rosacea than in age-and sex-matched controls. Grmec S (2002) Comparison of three different methods to con¿rm tracheal tube placement in emergency intubation. Lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane): health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. This quiet room within, which is built in imagination, works as a mental and emotional decompression chamber. Tis convention alerts a user that the information in the publication is older than the date of publication implies. It consists of eight motor tasks performed during therapy and evaluates spasticity in an overall man- ner but this item has poor interobserver and intraobserver repro- ducibility. Fluid measurement is done by direct volume measurement technology along the fluid pathways or by simple electronic scales assessing a change in substitution (decreasing weight) and waste (increasing) weights [24 , 25]. Other disadvan- tages of the device in birds include the necessity of The major disadvantage to intramuscular injection is surgical placement and removal and the difficulty of the potential for muscle damage. Gastrin, gastric acid secretion, and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Databases on the Internet Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Fat versus carbohydrate in insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Grant was one of the earliest “police surgeons” in En- gland, the first Superintending Surgeon having been appointed to the Metro- politan Police Force on April 30, 1830. When 58 postmenopausal women ate about 12 prunes each day for three months, they were found to have higher blood levels of enzymes and growth factors that indicate bone formation than women who did not consume prunes. McFarland collection in aerospace medicine and human factors engineering [microfche]. In Galliformes and Falconiformes, the crop forms a ventral enlarge- ment of the esophagus at the tho- racic inlet. To reduce the likelihood of bleeding and easy bruising with Coumadin, we recommend taking 150 to 300 mg of either grape seed or pine bark extract per day. A final approach to gene therapy against cancer is tumor-directed delivery of a gene that activates a nontoxic prodrug to a cytotoxic product. Benson of Harvard found that patients who prayed or meditated evoked their body’s relaxation response. Tumori gastrici nel cane: osservazioni personali [Gastric tumors in dogs: personal reports]. Glucagon, rather than insulin, system in embryos, for the production of adrenal is the principal director of carbohydrate metabolism hormones and for the formation of red and orange in birds. In such cases, modifications have to be made and new subject headings have been added ie, species of plants as well as their local names. Nutrients Many nutrients function as important cofactors in the manufacture, secretion, and function of thymic hormones. Information needs to be gathered about the factors affecting expression of genes and gene mutations, so that predictions can be made about the outcome in particular individuals. Peristalsis of the crop is easy to tected cracks, pops, wheezes or whistling sounds are observe (one to three per minute), particularly in indications of severe respiratory tract abnormalities. The multicenter study of perioperative Ischemia Kidney Int 1:190–196 research group. If an interpolating spline is used, such intervention is unnecessary, but the spline translates any imprecision in the location of the standard points into a bias in interpolation. Autosomal and X-linked genes 8th week: Thompson: Genetics in Medicine Ch 7; Lecture: 22. The bioavailable products of the particular plant resulting from this digestion tool can be used as more sensible new testable product of in vitro efficacy determination. There were significant differ- ences between the purity of drugs seized by customs and the police, showing the extent to which certain drugs are cut prior to distribution by dealers. Bodyweights mainly composed of dimers, oligomers, and polymers of andbloodglucoselevelsweremeasuredregularly. It is the manipulation of these genetic mutations and the enhancement of normal cellular events that is the goal of cancer gene therapy.

Once the platelet count has recovered to >150 order atorlip-20 uk,000 × 106/l atorlip-20 20 mg line, then warfarin therapy can be considered generic atorlip-20 20mg, as there is a risk of precipitating skin gangrene if warfarin ther- apy is started before the platelet count has recovered. Poultices Various herbal poultices are commonly used in the treatment of abscesses. Labelling of substances via iodinated diazo­ nium salts therefore proceeds under essential preservation of the original structure of the molecule. When a rooster, drake or cock short one, sexual activity declines or ceases and molt- pheasant is castrated, no changes are produced in the ing begins. All were outpatients referred to the thyroid clinic with the exception of patients with severe non-thyroidal illnesses who were hospitalized in the intensive care units of the University Hospital. Therefore, students repeating the course are subject to the same rules and requirements as those taking the course for the first time. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics becomes Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod • Some bibliographies and online databases show a place of publication afer a journal title, such as Clin Toxicol (Phila). Contamination in the water container, in certain unusual traits or the practice of heavy breed- addition to the aqueous medium and compatible en- ing within a very small gene pool will ultimately vironmental temperatures, provide all the require- accentuate both desirable and undesirable charac- ments for microorganisms to thrive. Notice that even events commonly viewed as positive, such as an outstanding personal achievement, carry stress. There is a reasonable agreement in Method: Most currently used assays are based on the the values among the most commonly used meth- Jaffe reaction. An organization such as a university, society, association, corporation, or government body may be an author. Since a large portion of the human biotin supply is provided by intestinal bacteria and since newborns have a sterile gastrointestinal tract, it has been postulated that the absence of normal intestinal flora may be responsible for biotin deficiency in infants. Data revealed that the effect was caused in part from non-specific adherence of antibody to the solid phase during the first incubation and its subsequent elution from the solid phase and its reactivity in solution with most of the antigen during the second incubation. The cloaca may or may not reovirus, polyomavirus), bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal be visualized, depending on its contents. Microscopic review of a freshly voided urine speci- men is very helpful to look for the presence of hyaline, granular and cellular casts, which can be indicative of 16. High-throughput screens of pharmaceutical libraries may soon be used to identify compounds worthy of further development based on the gene expression profiles they induce in treated cells. It is assumed that following a training program is then a first-order ability of the individual concerned (32). Results indicated that the frequency of headaches and activity scores were significantly improved over the course of treatment. Even in fairly recent times old soldiers have proudly displayed their "scars of battle," and today in the outlawed duelling societies in Germany, a saber scar is a mark of distinction. See the following examples: Language Suppl Spec No Pt French supplement nombre speciale partie annexe part German Beiblatt spezielle Zahl Teil Beilage Box 28 continues on next page... A more firmly based approach became apparent when it was found that antisera raised against steroid glucuronides conjugated to a protein by the sugar carboxylate group, exhibit a high degree of cross-reactivity with the corresponding free steroid [5]. Several investigators have studied the effects of prophylactic IvIg 20 Immunoglobulins in Sepsis 239 administration in different categories of patients prone to infections and sepsis, including premature infants and patients undergoing heart surgery. Foreign bodies shaft of feathers, particularly under the wing (Figure may or may not be found. In the affected cockatiel, La- Hypoglycemic (Raptors) fora-like particles were identified diffusely through- out the liver. Pectin of different doses (1g/kg, 2g/kg, and 3g/kg) were tested on adrenaline induced hyperglycemic rats and compared with standard drug glibenclamide (4mg/kg) (negative control). Westermarck E, Sandholm M: Fecal eas in Zongxian county, Hubei prov- tion to ecology, phylogeny, and the raptorial birds. For best results niacin should be taken at night, as most cholesterol synthesis occurs during sleep. The in vivo method involves direct administration of the virus to the nervous system. Later, when this "giant" was found and identified, he turned out not to be a giant at all. Acute alcohol intoxication or the deleterious effects of drugs are, in most cases, likely to have a decreasing effect because they are metabolized or excreted from the individual’s body. This is based on the use of uniform control sera with at least two different concentration ranges. Nonspecific clinical signs C H A P T E R of gastrointestinal diseases may include D anorexia, dysphagia, regurgitation, vomit- ing, constipation, diarrhea and tenesmus. Free- ranging populations of Zebra Finches are highly social until court- ship behavior begins. Both scales contain a question about driving, often not applicable in an el- derly population. It is obvious that an evolution is occurring in health care and that as a result more natural therapies are gaining acceptance even in mainstream medical circles. They are also associated with increasing the sensitivity of tissues to insulin and improving the uptake of glucose by the muscles, liver, and other tissues, thereby preventing a sustained elevation of blood sugar. The widest tolerable range of caloric density is extremely high, the appropriate calcium to phosphorous ratio should be considered to feedback systems that regulate satiety may not have be 0. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. The extracts, again at a dose level of 8 mg/ml, produced muscular paralysis of the worms within 24 hr. Develop an enthusiasm for life, create a need for more life, and you will receive more life. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Nutritioinal analyses of the powdered root was conducted and found that carbohydrate, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin C, fat and fibre were present. Consistency of bias and the proportion of laboratories that consistently obtained results within ± 10% o f the consensus mean were noted and plotted as a percentage o f total results received during this cycle. Resident decision making in the laboratory is under the direct supervision of the teaching faculty at their assigned site. Guanosine supplementation reduces apoptosis and protects renal function in the setting of ischemic injury. For example, he or she will be asked to provide a voluntary baseline blood sample for stor- age and numerous follow-up samples for testing depending on the nature of the exposure. Clinical assessment generally follows the conventional medical model, with a medical history, physical exam, laboratory evaluation, and other well-accepted diagnostic procedures, but the clinical assessment may be influenced by nonconventional diagnostic techniques such as tests for nutrient deficiencies, toxin load, and physiological function. A 33-year-old male in an underdeveloped country presents with a markedly edematous right foot that has multiple draining sinuses. Journal article on the Internet with Greek letters or other special characters in the title 15. May also be effective for Oxyspirura, some coccidia, some nema- todes, gapeworms and sternostamatosis. These are ques- tions about: – the cause; – time and mode of onset of symptoms; 1 Lazarus uses the term “personal characteristic”. Computerized tests may be reasonably well-standardized but be unsuitable for testing those re- habilitation patients who have difficulty with instructions, who require continual monitoring which would interfere with the standardization requirements, and still others who may not be able to stay on track as long as required, whether due to wavering attention, distractibility, poor memory, or fatigue.

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